Expanding nebulon in a cosmic-dusty-plasma environment (such as the supernova shells and Saturn’s F-ring): Observable extremal surface for the electrostatic potential via solution (29) with the parameters chosen as , , , and . These three cartoon graphs are pictured against the space coordinates , , and , with the values of time used being , 2, and 3, respectively.
Expanding bright nebulon: Observable surface (left and middle graphs for and 3 with ) and its time evolution (right graph for ), via solution (29), with the same cosmic-dusty-plasma environment and the same values of parameters as those in Fig. 1, plus . The maximum crests or peaks hereby correspond to Fig. 1 cross-sectioned at .
Expanding dark nebulon: Everything is the same as Fig. 2 except that . The lowest values hereby correspond to Fig. 1 cross-sectioned at as well.
Another expanding nebulon in a similar cosmic-dusty-plasma environment: extremal surface via solution (29) with the parameters chosen as , , , and . Three cartoon photos are taken at , 20, and 30, respectively.
Ring nebula (M57), about one light-year across and 2000 light-years away in the northern constellation Lyra. Picture reprinted with permission of Ref. 13.
Saturn as seen by the Cassini spacecraft. Picture reprinted with permission of Ref. 24.
Crab nebula (M1, NGC 1952), the most conspicuous supernova remnant first noted by the Northern-Song-Dynasty Chinese astronomers on July 4, 1054, lying about 6300 light-years away in the constellation Taurus, now measuring roughly 10 light-years across and expanding at an average speed of . Picture reprinted with permission of Ref. 24.
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