Plasma density (dotted curve), fluid momentum (dashed-dotted curve), and plasma wave electrostatic potential (solid curve) excited by a Gaussian laser pulse with normalized intensity (dashed curve).
Example of single electron orbits (dotted curves) in phase space for , , and . The solid curve is the separatrix, and the dashed curve is the cold fluid orbit. The head of the driver is at .
Initial electron momentum required to be trapped by a plasma wave with field amplitude and phase velocity , 10, and 50.
Momentum spread (solid curve) and temperature (dotted curve) evolution in the plasma wave (dashed-dotted curve) excited by a Gaussian laser pulse with normalized intensity (dashed curve).
Fraction of trapped electrons [Eq. (16)] versus the initial temperature of a Gaussian plasma electron velocity distribution for three different nonlinear plasma wave amplitudes , , and , with and .
Wave breaking field [Eq. (27)] vs for initial plasma distributions with , 0.01, and 0.05, and .
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