Numerical solutions of the three-wave model with (solid) and without (dotted) the second-order frequency shift . Here the linear thermal shift of Langmuir wave frequency, and is the second-order frequency shift.
Laser amplification in the nontrapping regime. The pump amplitude is and the initial seed amplitude is . The wavelengths of the seed and pump are and , respectively. The plasma density is and the temperature of the plasma is . (a) In the early stage of the amplification, the seed is amplified and broadened. (b) The amplification is in the nonlinear regime (the -pulse regime). (c) The electron phase space near the peak of the seed in (b).
Laser amplification in the trapping regime. The pump amplitude is . The laser wavelengths and the initial seed amplitude are the same as in Fig. 2. The plasma density and temperature are and , respectively. (a), (b) The amplifications at and , respectively. (c), (d) Corresponding electron phase spaces near the peaks of the seeds.
Measurement of [Eq. (33)] and [Eq. (34)] from the aPIC simulation. The simulation parameters are the same as in Fig. 3.
Simulations of the strong pump case (parameters are the same as in Fig. 3) using aPIC, test particle scheme, and the three-wave fluid model.
Comparisons of the three different schemes. Parameters are the same as in Fig. 5, except the pump amplitude .
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