Scorecard of validation approaches for resolving common challenges. A check mark indicates which approaches address common challenges.
Primacy hierarchy for particle transport. Rounded boxes between levels identify operations performed in going to the higher level, as described in the text, or quantities that characterize the combination of the lower level components.
Primacy hierarchy for power density spectrum.
Comparison of model results with experiment at two levels in the primacy hierarchy. The density fluctuation has a lower primacy level than the flux, but its discrepancy with experiment is larger. The flux also illustrates the strong sensitivity of transport to the gradient scale length, showing a factor of 5 increase in the flux for a 60% increase in gradient scale length.
Generic depiction of a comparison of experimental and simulation data with confidence intervals computed for the former and an uncertainty of shown for the latter.
Comparison of the expectation value of the average error between the experimental and simulated data (in blue) with the 90% confidence interval (in red).
Taylor diagram for Fig. 3 of Rhodes et al. (Ref. 18 ) which displays the closeness of ion temperature gradient models to experiment (labeled Ref). In this polar plot the radial variable is standard deviation normalized to the mean and the angle (measured from the horizontal axis) is the inverse cosine of the correlation coefficient.
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