Ion bulk parameters ( averages) of solar wind (left, 21 June 2007; right, 21 October 2001) for energies at measured by ACE (Advanced Composition Explorer). Shown are , , , , and . Solar wind increases are caused by transient solar disturbances.
Bulk parameters from Cluster 1 (SC1) of the transient in the magnetosheath on 21 June 2007 (/charge). From top to bottom are spin averaged data (4s) of the energy spectrogram, , , in GSE (Geocentric Solar Ecliptic), relative to denoted by sub-indices ∥ and ⊥, plasma (red), particle (black), -pressure (blue), and .
Intense ion fluxes are detected by Cluster on the dayside (21 October 2001) at the expected mid-altitude cusp region. SC1 at 2110 UT was at (2.9, , ) in GSE . Top to bottom, energy flux spectrogram, and , , , (GSE), plasma (red), particle (black) and -pressure (blue), heat flux and field.
Phase-space distributions of electrons (top) and ions (bottom). The electrons are for energies above the spacecraft potential . (+) and (-) correspond to directions parallel and antiparallel to . The “flattop” shape electron distributions are similar to magnetosheath distributions. The ions show mixed magntosheath, magnetospheric, and ionospheric distributions. Species identifications are made using the ion composition data.
A wave spectrogram (21 October 2001). EM waves are electron and ion cyclotron emissions. The broadband ES emissions are produced by deBye-scale electron holes. The narrow emissions at harmonics are Bernstein mode waves. Density for electrons and protons and at 2112 UT yield the following frequencies: cyclotron and , plasma and , lower and upper hybrid , .
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