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Transport of transient solar wind particles in Earth’s cusps
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View: Figures


Image of FIG. 1.
FIG. 1.

Ion bulk parameters ( averages) of solar wind (left, 21 June 2007; right, 21 October 2001) for energies at measured by ACE (Advanced Composition Explorer). Shown are , , , , and . Solar wind increases are caused by transient solar disturbances.

Image of FIG. 2.
FIG. 2.

Bulk parameters from Cluster 1 (SC1) of the transient in the magnetosheath on 21 June 2007 (/charge). From top to bottom are spin averaged data (4s) of the energy spectrogram, , , in GSE (Geocentric Solar Ecliptic), relative to denoted by sub-indices ∥ and ⊥, plasma (red), particle (black), -pressure (blue), and .

Image of FIG. 3.
FIG. 3.

Intense ion fluxes are detected by Cluster on the dayside (21 October 2001) at the expected mid-altitude cusp region. SC1 at 2110 UT was at (2.9, , ) in GSE . Top to bottom, energy flux spectrogram, and , , , (GSE), plasma (red), particle (black) and -pressure (blue), heat flux and field.

Image of FIG. 4.
FIG. 4.

Phase-space distributions of electrons (top) and ions (bottom). The electrons are for energies above the spacecraft potential . (+) and (-) correspond to directions parallel and antiparallel to . The “flattop” shape electron distributions are similar to magnetosheath distributions. The ions show mixed magntosheath, magnetospheric, and ionospheric distributions. Species identifications are made using the ion composition data.

Image of FIG. 5.
FIG. 5.

A wave spectrogram (21 October 2001). EM waves are electron and ion cyclotron emissions. The broadband ES emissions are produced by deBye-scale electron holes. The narrow emissions at harmonics are Bernstein mode waves. Density for electrons and protons and at 2112 UT yield the following frequencies: cyclotron and , plasma and , lower and upper hybrid , .


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752b84549af89a08dbdd7fdb8b9568b5 journal.articlezxybnytfddd
Scitation: Transport of transient solar wind particles in Earth’s cusps