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Efficient multi-keV X-ray sources from laser-exploded metallic thin foils
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10.1063/1.2973480
/content/aip/journal/pop/15/9/10.1063/1.2973480
http://aip.metastore.ingenta.com/content/aip/journal/pop/15/9/10.1063/1.2973480

Figures

Image of FIG. 1.
FIG. 1.

Principle of the experiments: (a) without prepulse and (b) with prepulse.

Image of FIG. 2.
FIG. 2.

Experimental configuration, shown for titanium experiment.

Image of FIG. 3.
FIG. 3.

Center: FCI2 temperature and density maps for a titanium foil irradiated with and without prepulse, at the main pulse top time ( and , respectively). Left: laser pulses. Right: x-ray (above ) powers in at the front side.

Image of FIG. 4.
FIG. 4.

Incident (PL) and absorbed (PA) laser powers for irradiation with and without prepulse (PP) for Ti, Cu and Ge targets, given by FCI2. We represented, for clarity, only the main part of the pulses in each case. The laser parameters are to find in Table I.

Image of FIG. 5.
FIG. 5.

FCI2 profiles of density, temperature, and emissivity, for Ti (a, c), Cu (b, d), Ge (c, f) foils irradiated with and without prepulse, showing conditions for maximum of emissivity.

Image of FIG. 6.
FIG. 6.

Effect of a prepulse on above- x-ray emitting spots for titanium foil (2002 conditions). (a) SXRFC images at rear side (180°), with emitting zone in deep blue and (b) calculated images, with emitting zone in red. Left: without prepulse, right: with a prepulse ( delay), every time at in main pulse.

Image of FIG. 7.
FIG. 7.

Effect of a prepulse on around- x-ray emitting spots for titanium foil (2002 conditions). (a) SXRFC images at rear side (180°), with emitting zone in deep blue and (b) calculated images, with emitting zone in red. Left: without prepulse; right: with a prepulse ( delay), every time at in main pulse.

Image of FIG. 8.
FIG. 8.

Radius of FWHM of the above- emission zone vs time (reported to the beginning of the heating pulse (no PP) or (PP) for the same shots as in Figs. 6 and 7. Experiments: ◆ without prepulse and ◼ with prepulse. FCI2: full lines with nonlocal transport and -fields; dashed lines with .

Image of FIG. 9.
FIG. 9.

Effect of a prepulse on above- x-ray time-integrated images for a copper foil (2003 conditions) at 49° and 79°. (a) Experimental images (180°) and (b) calculated images. Left: without prepulse, right: with a -delay prepulse.

Image of FIG. 10.
FIG. 10.

Effect of a prepulse on above- x-ray time-integrated images for a germanium foil (2004 conditions, 2-side irradiation) at 149°. (a) Experiments and (b) calculated images. From left to right: without prepulse, with a delay prepulse, with a delay prepulse.

Image of FIG. 11.
FIG. 11.

K-band emitted x-ray power for a titanium foil , in . Black: without prepulse; green: with -delay prepulse; and pink: with -delay prepulse. (a) Laser incident pulses, (b) experimental signals, and (c) FCI2-calculated x-ray powers.

Image of FIG. 12.
FIG. 12.

K-band emitted x-ray power for a copper foil, per unit solid angle. Black: without prepulse; pink: with -delay prepulse. (a) Laser pulses, (b) experimental x-ray signals, and (c) FCI2-calculated x-ray powers.

Image of FIG. 13.
FIG. 13.

K-band emitted x-ray power for a germanium foil , per unit solid angle. Black: without prepulse; blue: with -delay prepulse; pink: with -delay prepulse. (a) Laser pulses, (b) experimental x-ray signals, and (c) FCI2-calculated x-ray powers.

Image of FIG. 14.
FIG. 14.

Four to six x-ray emission lobe of a titanium foil, given by in 2002 conditions (cf. Table I). In blue: without prepulse; in red: with -delay prepulse.

Image of FIG. 15.
FIG. 15.

Calculated spectra for view angles from 0° to 180° with respect to the foil normal. From top to bottom for Ti (2002 conditions), Cu (2003 conditions), Ge (2004 conditions). Left: without prepulse; right: with prepulse. Recall for Ge the two-side irradiation.

Image of FIG. 16.
FIG. 16.

X-ray conversion efficiency vs pulse/prepulse delay for a titanium foil, for main pulse and in front side. For 2002: experimental results ● ◆ (DMX and NRL diodes)—FCI2 results; thin line: with ; dashed line: with ; thick line: with NLB transport model. For 2003: experimental results ● ◆ (DMX and NRL diodes), FCI2 results, ⊕ with , ▽ with limited thermal transport, and X with NLB transport model. Note the difference of the laser intensity between 2002 and 2003 experiments (cf. Table I).

Image of FIG. 17.
FIG. 17.

X-ray conversion efficiency vs pulse/prepulse delay for a copper foil, for main pulse and in ( sides). Experimental results (2003) ● ◆ (DMX and NRL diodes)—FCI2 results; thin line: with ; dashed line: limited thermal transport; thick line: with NLB transport model.

Image of FIG. 18.
FIG. 18.

X-ray conversion efficiency vs pulse/prepulse delay for a germanium foil, for main pulse (2-side irradiation) and in . The delay corresponds to the case without prepulse. Experimental results (2004) ● (DMX). FCI2 results: thin line with ; dashed line: limited thermal transport;▼ : with NLB transport model.

Image of FIG. 19.
FIG. 19.

Influence of a prepulse on x-ray spectra emitted from a laser-irradiated titanium foil. Comparison of DMX spectra and FCI2 spectra with various thermal transport models. (a) delay, 2002 conditions; (b) delay, 2003 conditions.

Image of FIG. 20.
FIG. 20.

X-ray spectra from front side for a laser-irradiated copper foil (2003 conditions). Comparison of DMX and FCI2 spectra for various thermal transport models. Left: range; right: range. (a, b) without prepulse; (c, d) with -delay prepulse; (e, f) for sake of clarity, results from (a, b) and (c, d) with the best simulation.

Image of FIG. 21.
FIG. 21.

Influence of a prepulse (2- and delay, 2004 conditions) on the x-ray spectra. (a) ; (b) ranges for a germanium foil laser-irradiated. Comparison of DMX spectra and FCI2 spectra, with -limited thermal transport that gives the smallest gap.

Image of FIG. 22.
FIG. 22.

Comparison of the emissivity in Ge K-band, calculated by NOHEL-2e, with (in red) and without (in green) two-electron processes for two sets .

Image of FIG. 23.
FIG. 23.

Time-integrated K-band spectrum showing titanium hydrogenlike and heliumlike structures. (a) HENWAY spectrometer. (b) SCAALP-DCA calculations, solid and dashed lines, with and without TEP, respectively. The spectra are arbitrarily shifted in height in order to make the structures differences more visible.

Image of FIG. 24.
FIG. 24.

Results and analysis of Thomson scattering data for a titanium target, with a pulse/prepulse delay (2002 conditions). (a) Thermal Thomson scattering spectrum. (b, c) Temporal evolutions of and obtained from FCI2 at different distances on axis normal to the target, (thin line), (thick line), and experimental points deduced from Thomson signal (circles). Dashed lines correspond to FCI2 with , full lines to FCI2 with NLB model. Normalized main pulse power is superimposed on bottom pictures.

Image of FIG. 25.
FIG. 25.

Results and analysis of Thomson scattering (TS) data for a copper target, with a pulse/prepulse delay (2003 conditions). (a) map calculated by FCI2 showing viewing points. (b) Curves of temporal evolutions of obtained from FCI2 at different points () on axis perpendicular to the target and vs the target center (, ), to compare with experimental points deduced from TS signal (triangles). Normalized main pulse power is superimposed on the right picture.

Image of FIG. 26.
FIG. 26.

Multi-keV (above ) x-ray conversion efficiencies vs photon energy, for gases and solid materials: ◼ solid targets (LLNL), ◆ Ti-doped aerogels (LLNL), ▼ ▲ gas (LLNL), ● prepulsed foils (CEA).

Tables

Generic image for table
Table I.

Conditions for the series of thin foils double pulse experiments.

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/content/aip/journal/pop/15/9/10.1063/1.2973480
2008-09-17
2014-04-25
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752b84549af89a08dbdd7fdb8b9568b5 journal.articlezxybnytfddd
Scitation: Efficient multi-keV X-ray sources from laser-exploded metallic thin foils
http://aip.metastore.ingenta.com/content/aip/journal/pop/15/9/10.1063/1.2973480
10.1063/1.2973480
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