Sketch map of the high-current vacuum diode system.
Typical phase space of electrons emitting from a velvet cathode in the given diode geometry (A-K ).
Experimentally measured peak values of diode current vs voltage for a velvet cathode, compared with KARAT predictions at A-K gap of 55 mm.
Typical voltage and current waveforms for a living velvet cathode at 300 Hz (A-K ).
Dependence of equilibrium pressure on pulse rep-rate.
Pressure history in the vacuum diode under 300 Hz pulse operation. The base pressure is , and the equilibrium pressure goes up to 1.5 Pa.
Dependence of velvet lifetime on pulse rep-rate.
Typical voltage and current waveforms during the 2000 shots process at 300 Hz (A-K ).
Evolutions of the diode current and impedance during the 2000 shots process at 300 Hz (A-K ).
Photograph of the velvet surface after 2000 pulses at 300 Hz.
SEM images of the velvet surface (a) before and (b) after 2000 shots at 300 Hz (front view).
The pulse-to-pulse instability (rms) of the diode voltage, current, and current pulse-width (FWHM) with a living velvet cathode under different pulse rep-rate (A-K ).
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