(a) Case 1: simple flat target. The target has a thickness of and is located between and . (b) Case 2: holed-backside target. The target has a thickness of and is located between and . The simulation box is long and wide. The laser impinges on the target from the left.
Transverse distribution of the longitudinal sheath electric field at . Laser focal radius is for case 1 (blue/dark line) and case 2 (green/gray line).
Spatial distributions of [(a) and (b)] and [(c) and (d)] (in units of ) for the hole target at and , respectively. The dotted lines indicate the location of the hole.
(a) The phase space distribution of all protons. (b) Proton density distribution along at (black/solid). The initial density profile is shown in red/dashed color. The dotted lines indicate the location of the hole.
(a) Energy distribution of all the protons from the target (black/dark line) and the protons from the hole (green/gray line) at . (b) Proton energy spectra from the hole at , , and . (c) Energy spectra of all protons off the target backside at . (d) Angular distribution of the protons from the hole at .
(a) Typical trajectories of protons initially located near the hole bottom. (b) Temporal evolution of the proton kinetic energy.
Energy distribution of the protons at for different spot radii [(a) and (b) ] and hole diameters [(a) , , , and (b) , , , ]. The energy spectrum for all protons from the hole at is shown in (c). Here, the hole diameter and depth are and , respectively.
Energy distribution of protons at for different hole depth : (a) , (b) , (c) , and (d) . Here, the hole diameter and spot size are and , respectively. Other parameters are the same as before.
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