The targets and their positions in the simulation box. The initial density of the targets is . The width of the targets is , located at , and the thickness is at . The space coordinates are normalized by the laser wavelength . The lower-right panel shows the temporal profile of the laser pulse, the peak intensity is , which corresponds to . is a laser cycle.
Proton energy spectra at for the concave, flat, and convex foil targets.
Phase spaces of protons at time . The target rear surface is now located at due to the plasma movement.
Energy spectra of hot electrons with at time for the concave, flat, and convex targets.
Spatial distribution of the square root (normalized by the laser electric field ) of the instantaneous electromagnetic energy at .
The electron energy density distributions normalized by the initial electron density for electrons with (corresponding to the hot electrons with ) at (left) and (right). The maximum electron energy density is 100 for both the concave and convex targets and 45 for the flat target.
The profiles of the electron energy density distributions at and at .
The cycle-averaged magnetic field at (left) and (right).
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