Time-integrated x-ray pinhole camera images from the preformed plasmas taken (a) with, and (b) without the GEKKO PW laser interactions (from Ref. 18). The x-ray intensity profiles along the vertical dashed lines in the images are at the left of the images. and denote the energies of the long pulse GEKKO XII laser and the short pulse GEKKO PW laser. The color codes are in arbitrary units. The white scale bars correspond to . Note the x-ray pictures were obtained at 21° to the GEKKO PW laser axis (i.e., not 90°).
Ultraintense laser transmission through the overdense plasmas as a function of (a) focal position at peak plasma density of and of (b) the peak density in the preformed plasma at fixed focal position , respectively (from Ref. 22).
The electron energy spectra for (a) the small scale and (b) the large scale preformed plasma (from Ref. 24). The dotted lines are fitted curves with a relativistic Maxwellian distribution.
Hot electron angular distribution for (a) the small scale and (b) the large scale preformed plasma (from Ref. 24).
The ion density in channeling (a) by two pulses at , and (b) by a single pulse at , with the observation times corresponding to that at maximum channel length (from Ref. 30). The two-pulse scheme can clearly channel deeper into the plasma. The single longer pulse leads to considerable deterioration of the channel quality without lengthening it.
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