Evolution of the maximum proton energy with time for , 57, and 111 fs.
(a) Sharp-edge and (b) smooth-edge target maximum proton energy and laser absorption vs pulse duration.
Maximum proton energy and absorption variations vs gradient length for the 30 fs laser pulse duration.
Conversion efficiency of the laser energy into proton kinetic energy.
Gradient length at back surface vs pulse duration.
Snapshots of proton expansion at the time when the main pulse hits the front surface of the sharp-edge target for the , 192, and 246 fs simulations (the laser is incident from the left).
Evolution of the hot electron temperature and density with for both profiles.
Electrostatic field measured and computed from the hot electron density, temperature, and the gradient length with for (a) sharp-edge and (b) smooth-edge profiles.
Variations in (squares) and (circles) with the pulse duration from 30 to 300 fs.
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