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Absolute x-ray yields from laser-irradiated germanium-doped low-density aerogels
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10.1063/1.3140041
/content/aip/journal/pop/16/5/10.1063/1.3140041
http://aip.metastore.ingenta.com/content/aip/journal/pop/16/5/10.1063/1.3140041

Figures

Image of FIG. 1.
FIG. 1.

(Top) OMEGA beam cones and cylindrical target and (bottom) three of the laser power profiles used to drive the aerogel targets (shown with arbitrary offsets for clarity).

Image of FIG. 2.
FIG. 2.

Two spectra from Ge-doped aerogel targets measured with the HENWAY spectrometer. Shown are both reduced spectral data (solid lines) and continuum fits (dashes). The target for shot 39 154 had density of , and for shot 39 153, . The laser intensity on target ranged from 6.2 to .

Image of FIG. 3.
FIG. 3.

(Top) X-ray yield numbers for the -shell (9–15 keV) band from HENWAY and from high-energy signals from the DMX and (bottom) x-ray yields for the 4–15 keV band from HENWAY spectra and from the high-energy signals from the SNL PCDs, from a series of shots comparing targets of different volumes.

Image of FIG. 4.
FIG. 4.

X-ray yield numbers for the -shell plus -shell (0.03–3.5 keV) band from the DMX and DANTE diagnostics (the two points for shot 42754 are on top of each other).

Image of FIG. 5.
FIG. 5.

Yield data summary (in J/sr) for Ge-doped aerogels in the 9–15 keV band. The symbols in the figure represent the target types described in Table II, with the symbols from left to right corresponding to the entries going down the table.

Image of FIG. 6.
FIG. 6.

Yield data summary (in J/sr) for Ge-doped aerogels in the 0.03–3.5 keV band. The symbols in the figure represent the target types described in Table III, with the symbols from left to right corresponding to the entries going down the table. Note that there is no entry for the seventh target type.

Image of FIG. 7.
FIG. 7.

(Top) X-ray yield numbers for the -shell (9–15 keV) band for five target types (Table II) as a function of plasma electron density. (Middle) X-ray yield numbers for the -shell band for six target types as a function of initial target volume. (Bottom) X-ray yield numbers for the -shell band from seven target types as a function of laser intensity. The dashed lines in each panel are fits to (some of) the data that have been done simply to guide the eyes.

Image of FIG. 8.
FIG. 8.

(Top) X-ray yield numbers for the 0.03–3.5 keV band for five target types (Table III) as a function of plasma electron density. (Middle) X-ray yield numbers for the 0.03–3.5 keV band for six target types as a function of initial target volume. (Bottom) X-ray yield numbers for the 0.03–3.5 keV band from seven target types as a function of laser intensity. The dashed lines in each panel are fits to (some of) the data that have been done simply to guide the eyes.

Image of FIG. 9.
FIG. 9.

Laser power (solid line, left scale) and PCD-measured x-ray power (dashed line, right scale) for (top) two targets in small ( ) cylinders ( and for shots 39 156 and 39 157, respectively) and (bottom) laser power (solid line) and PCD-measured x-ray power (dashed line) for two targets in large ( ) cylinders ( and for shots 44158 and 44157, respectively).

Image of FIG. 10.
FIG. 10.

Laser power (solid line, left scale) and measured x-ray power for (dash-dotted line, right scale) and for (dashed line, right scale) for shot 51167, a type 2 target.

Image of FIG. 11.
FIG. 11.

XRFC images for shots 39154 and 46616. Both targets demonstrate the overlap of the heated x-ray regions from the open ends of the cylinders, but the target for 46616 shows the formation of a late-time jet of plasma on axis due to compression from cylinder-wall material that has stagnated on the axis.

Image of FIG. 12.
FIG. 12.

Laser power (solid line, left scale) and measured x-ray power for (dashed line, right scale) for shot 46616, a type 1 target.

Image of FIG. 13.
FIG. 13.

Time-integrated x-ray pinhole camera images of the type 2 target used on shot 44158. The cameras (H13 left, H3 right) had nearly side-on views of the target. The emission is dominated by a collimated region along the target’s axis that we hypothesize is due to radial compression of the hot plasma. A wireframe drawing of the targets preshot outline as viewed by the camera has been placed on each image

Image of FIG. 14.
FIG. 14.

Summary of the sum of SRS and SBS scattered energy for each target type in the present work. The SRS and SBS values for each shot are averaged over the measurement from a cone 2 and a cone 3 beam and an assumed (small) contribution for losses from the cone 1 beams and are expressed as a fraction of the total energy delivered.

Tables

Generic image for table
Table I.

The spot dimensions for the three focus conditions used in the present experiments for cone 1 (21.42°), cone 2 (42.02°), and cone 3 (58.85°) beams on the P5-P8 axis. The quoted dimensions are the minor and major axes of the elliptical beam spots at the face of the target. The two sets of numbers in the moderate focus category are for 3 ns (top) and 1 ns (bottom) irradiations.

Generic image for table
Table II.

A summary of the high-energy x-ray yields from the targets shot in this series of experiments. Columns are the target type, number of shots for each type, aerogel density , the ratio of plasma-electron to laser-critical density , the target dimensions , laser pulse length, the laser focus (see Table I), laser intensity, the x-ray yield between 9 and 15 keV with uncertainty, and the CE (assuming isotropic emission) in the 9–15 keV band.

Generic image for table
Table III.

A summary of the x-ray yields from the targets shot in this series of experiments. Columns are the target type, the ratio of plasma-electron to laser-critical density , the target dimensions , laser intensity, the x-ray yield per steradian between 0.03 and 3.5 keV with uncertainty, and the CE (assuming isotropic emission), and the x-ray yield between 4 and 15 keV with uncertainty.

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/content/aip/journal/pop/16/5/10.1063/1.3140041
2009-05-19
2014-04-25
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752b84549af89a08dbdd7fdb8b9568b5 journal.articlezxybnytfddd
Scitation: Absolute x-ray yields from laser-irradiated germanium-doped low-density aerogels
http://aip.metastore.ingenta.com/content/aip/journal/pop/16/5/10.1063/1.3140041
10.1063/1.3140041
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