Energy loss of 450 GeV protons calculated by FLUKA using a solid tungsten cylindrical target with and radius of 5 cm; (a) , (b) , and (c) .
Specific energy deposition by one SPS bunch ( protons) in solid tungsten: (a) along axis ; (b) along radius, for three different values of , 0.28, and 0.88 mm, respectively.
Specific energy deposition by the SPS beam in a tungsten cylinder, length of 2 m, radius of 5 cm (since energy deposition is a localized phenomenon, we only show inner 2 cm radius) at (end of the beam); 288 proton bunches, each bunch consists of protons, bunch length of 0.5 ns, two neighboring bunches are separated by 25 ns, transverse intensity distribution is Gaussian; (a) , (b) , and (c) .
Target temperature corresponding to Fig. 3.
Target pressure corresponding to Fig. 3.
Target density corresponding to Fig. 3.
Profiles along target axis at for three different values of sigma; (a) specific energy, (b) temperature, (c) pressure, and (d) density.
Tungsten target; (a) plasma coupling parameter vs temperature for different values of density, (b) degree of ionization vs temperature for different values of density.
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