Simulated density profile at maximum compression of the coronal plasma surrounding the fuel for a typical HIPER baseline target (the electron density is given in terms of the critical density for 351 nm laser light). Solid vertical rectangle: density region studied by Li et al. (Ref. 18). Dashed rectangle: density region studied in the present experiment. Solid horizontal rectangle: density region where the stable channel was detected.
(a) Schematic top-view of the experimental setup. (b) , . (c) , . (d) , . (e) , . All the radiographs refer to a probing proton energy of 4 MeV.
(a) Energy of the accelerated electrons for , , and compared with the theoretical ponderomotive scaling. (b) Forward transmitted light spectrum for . No signature of self-modulation is visible.
(a) 1D profile of the electric field distribution used, in cylindrical symmetry, as the input for the PT simulations. (b) Related electron density normalized to . (c) Dotted line: experimental proton modulation across the channel [refer to the solid line in Fig. 2(b) for the cross-cut direction]. Solid line: PT simulated proton density modulation. (d) Green triangles: experimental optical density modulation across the bifurcated region [refer to the dashed line in Fig. 2(b) for the cross-cut direction]. Thin solid line: optical density from the related PT simulation. Thick solid line: experimental electric field distribution as directly measured at the detector plane.
Simulated ion density and laser electric field distribution for both the single [images (a) and (e)] and bifurcated regions [images (b) and (f)]. Images (c) and (d) show transverse crosscuts of images (a) and (b), respectively. All images refer to a simulation time of 20 ps.
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