A picture of foam material which is located inside the metal holder. The mass density is 3 mg/cc with thickness of . The foam and metal holder are irradiated by He–Ne laser, showing that the foam layer is transparent.
(a) Initial distribution of number density of Al ion for preplasma-attached, and average number of atom for foam-attached targets. (b) Time evolution of ion charge density during laser irradiation. The charge density is normalized by . (c) Time evolution of laser field distribution, which is normalized by laser electric field.
Number density distribution of Si ions with respect to the each ionization level at (a) , (b) , and (c) , respectively.
(a) Electron energy spectra observed at the target rear side for preplasma case and foam-attached target case. (b) Phase plot of electrons of foam-attached target at . The electron momentum is normalized by .
Spatial distribution of sheath field for (a) target with preplasma case and (b) foam-attached target case. The sheath field is plotted in unit of TV/m. (c) Spatial distribution of ion charge density for foam-attached target case, where the density is normalized by the critical density. All figures are taken at .
(a) Maximum proton energy dependence on foam thickness for . (b) Maximum proton energy dependence on foam density for . (c) Maximum proton energy dependence on the laser intensity for .
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