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Surface structuring by ultrashort laser pulses: A review of photoionization models
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10.1063/1.3510477
/content/aip/journal/pop/17/11/10.1063/1.3510477
http://aip.metastore.ingenta.com/content/aip/journal/pop/17/11/10.1063/1.3510477

Figures

Image of FIG. 1.
FIG. 1.

Photoionization process by tunnel effect in the classical approximation. Before the interaction, the electron is into the atomic potential (dotted line). The electromagnetic field modifies into a new Coulombic potential (solid line) creating a potential barrier. The maximum slope is obtained each half-optical cycle, when the laser field is maximum (dashed-dotted line). The tunneling probability reaches maximum at each half-optical cycle.

Image of FIG. 2.
FIG. 2.

Photoionization rates in fused silica for a , laser shot: KD rate (solid line), SMPI rate (dashed line), LMPI rate (dashed-dotted line), PMPI rate (dotted line), and PPT rate (circle dots). The vertical solid line stands for a Keldysh parameter , with a corresponding intensity .

Image of FIG. 3.
FIG. 3.

Photoionization rates on laser intensity, estimated from average and instantaneous laser fields. Three models are considered: KD linear rate (solid line) and circular rate (dotted line), PMPI linear rate (dashed line) and circular rate (cross dots), and PPT linear rate (dashed-dotted line) and circular rate (circle dots). Keldysh parameter is the same as in Fig. 2.

Image of FIG. 4.
FIG. 4.

(a) Normalized electronic density on time after a 747 nJ laser shot obtained from KD (solid line), SMPI (dashed line), PPT (cross dots), PMPI (dotted line), and LMPI (dashed-dotted line). (b) Normalized electronic temperature on time obtained from KD after a 747 nJ laser shot.

Image of FIG. 5.
FIG. 5.

Normalized electronic density on depth obtained from KD (solid line), SMPI (dashed line), PPT (cross dots), PMPI (dotted line), and LMPI (dashed-dotted line). Two initial laser energies are considered: (a) and (b). The insert in (b) shows normalized electronic density on the transverse axis at the entrance plane for SMPI after a 747 nJ (solid line) and a (dashed line) laser shot.

Image of FIG. 6.
FIG. 6.

Normalized electronic density on time after a laser shot obtained from KD (solid line), SMPI (dashed line), PPT (cross dots), PMPI (dotted line), and LMPI (dashed-dotted line). The horizontal line stands for the critical density at 800 nm.

Image of FIG. 7.
FIG. 7.

Electronic density in arbitrary unit on time derived from multiphoton contribution only (solid line) and collisional contribution only (dashed line) obtained from LMPI (a) and SMPI (b) after a 747 nJ laser shot.

Image of FIG. 8.
FIG. 8.

Normalized electronic density on depth after a laser shot obtained from SMPI (solid line for linear polarization, dashed line for circular polarization) and LMPI (circle dots for linear polarization, dotted line for circular polarization). The insert shows the results obtained from KD (solid line for linear polarization, dashed line for circular polarization) and PMPI (circle dots for linear polarization, dotted line for circular polarization).

Image of FIG. 9.
FIG. 9.

Normalized electronic density as a function of depth after a 747 nJ laser shot. Electrons are considered either in the one-temperature model: SMPI (solid line), KD (dashed-dotted line), and PMPI (circle dots); or within the multigroup model: SMPI (dashed line), KD (dotted line), and PMPI (cross dots).

Image of FIG. 10.
FIG. 10.

Electronic densities of the first group on time: multigroup model (3) and one-temperature model (1), and electronic densities of the last group on time: multigroup model (4) and one-temperature model (2). Results are obtained from SMPI. Two initial laser energies are considered: (a) and (b).

Image of FIG. 11.
FIG. 11.

Target illumination scheme and main processes involved. The laser comes from the left. The matter is ionized along the propagation axis on few hundred nanometers. It produces a strongly heated zone, which is the starting point of the shock wave propagation and of the structuration processes.

Image of FIG. 12.
FIG. 12.

Absorbed energy distribution normalized to obtained from PMPI (on the left) and from SMPI (on the right) after a 747 nJ laser shot.

Image of FIG. 13.
FIG. 13.

Absorbed energy distribution normalized to obtained from KD with linear (on the left) and circular (on the right) polarization after a 747 nJ laser shot.

Image of FIG. 14.
FIG. 14.

Absorbed energy distribution normalized to obtained from SMPI with the one-temperature model (on the left) and the multigroup model (on the right) after a 747 nJ laser shot. The area where the energy density is greater than half of the maximum energy density is delimited by dots line.

Image of FIG. 15.
FIG. 15.

Absorbed energy distribution normalized to obtained from SMPI with two different laser energies: 747 nJ (on the left) and (on the right).

Image of FIG. 16.
FIG. 16.

Pressure levels on depth after a 747 nJ laser shot in fused silica obtained from SMPI model. (a) one-temperature model is used, pressure levels are 20 GPa (circle dots), 10 GPa (star dots), and 1 GPa (cross dots). (b) Multigroup model is used, pressure levels are 84 GPa (circle dots), 10 GPa (star dots), and 1 GPa (cross dots).

Image of FIG. 17.
FIG. 17.

Density levels on depth after a 747 nJ laser shot in fused silica obtained from SMPI model. (left) One-temperature model is used, density levels are (circle dots), (star dots), and (cross dots). (right) Multigroup model is used, density levels are (circle dots), (star dots), and (cross dots).

Image of FIG. 18.
FIG. 18.

Solid line: experimental damage probability on laser fluence obtained from Ref. 9 for a pulse duration of 28 fs. Square dot: experimental ablation threshold (Ref. 33). Circle dot: damage threshold obtained from the nonequilibrium critical temperature (Ref. 34). Star dots: laser fluences corresponding to the energies utilized in this study.

Tables

Generic image for table
Table I.

Comments on the abbreviations utilized in the paper.

Generic image for table
Table II.

Absorption, reflection, and transmission of the laser beam for SMPI.

Generic image for table
Table III.

Effects of the laser polarization on the absorption obtained from KD.

Generic image for table
Table IV.

Effects of the heating models on absorption computed with SMPI for an initial laser energy .

Generic image for table
Table V.

Intensity and fluence damage thresholds computed from different ionization models and estimated from the threshold for plasma formation.

Generic image for table
Table VI.

Absorbed energy and nature of the structural modifications after a 747 nJ laser shot.

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/content/aip/journal/pop/17/11/10.1063/1.3510477
2010-11-05
2014-04-24
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752b84549af89a08dbdd7fdb8b9568b5 journal.articlezxybnytfddd
Scitation: Surface structuring by ultrashort laser pulses: A review of photoionization models
http://aip.metastore.ingenta.com/content/aip/journal/pop/17/11/10.1063/1.3510477
10.1063/1.3510477
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