Illustration of the existence of residual electrons in the bubble in a typical PIC simulation. The plasma electron distributions of (a) density and (b) longitudinal velocity at one instant. The simulation parameters are described in text of Sec. I.
Comparisons of four sets of PIC simulations with theoretical analysis results. Each row belongs to a simulation and corresponds to a row in Table I in sequence. In the first column are the electron densities, where the circles are the theoretical equipotential surfaces. In the second column is the longitudinal electric fields dependence of longitudinal coordinate. In the third column is the transverse electric fields dependence of transverse coordinates. In the fourth column is the transverse magnetic fields dependence of transverse coordinates. In the second, third and fourth columns, the straight lines are the theoretical results. In cases of (a) and (b), the indications of positions 1 and 2 are the sections for longitudinal fields and 3 and 4 are the sections for transverse fields. In cases of (c) and (d), the longitudinal fields are on-axis and the transverse fields are on the sections that are marked with straight lines in the first column.
Four sets of PIC simulation parameters, average number and current densities of residual electrons inside the bubble from PIC data, theoretical and PIC fitted (refer to Fig. 2) absolute values of the slopes of longitudinal and transverse fields, and the theoretical ratio of longitudinal to transverse radius of bubble boundaries. Each row belongs to a simulation and corresponds to a row in Fig. 2 in sequence. Cases (a) and (b) are 2D simulations at snapshot time ; cases (c) and (d) are 3D simulations at snapshot time . L and T fields denote the longitudinal and transverse fields in bubble core region, respectively. The first and second PIC fitted slopes of the L field in sixth column of this table come from the curves in the second column of Fig. 2. For PIC fitted slopes of the T field in seventh column of this table, the first and second data come from the curves in the third column of Fig. 2; the third and fourth ones come from the curves in fourth column of Fig. 2, respectively.
Article metrics loading...
Full text loading...