Example spectra for various values of , with for , and , . Negative state can occur which corresponds to condensation of most of the energy into the longest wavelength modes.
Spectra for gyrokinetics and for the CHM equations, corresponding to the model initial conditions with energy initially at . Both spectra show a significant transfer of energy to larger scales, resulting in a negative temperature state with most of the energy condensed into the longest wavelength in the domain.
Spectra for gyrokinetics and Charney–Hasegawa–Mima, like Fig. 2 except the energy is initially at a higher wavenumber of .
Spectra for gyrokinetics for initial conditions with the energy at like Fig. 2, but with the value of the entropy invariants enhanced relative to the model initial conditions by factors of , , , and .
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