Phase-space plot of temperature vs number density including approximate conditions of interest for a variety of laboratory and space plasmas. The shaded area indicates the HED regime where an equilibrium plasma contains a total energy density of . The red-dashed line indicates the approximate upper bound for demonstrated conditions of pulsed power produced plasmas.
(a) Schematic representation of an applied-B ion diode. (b) Example measured (points) and calculated (line) Zeeman split line profile measurement of the Ba II 5d-6p transition centered at 6142 Å from the anode plasma indicating a B-field of . (c) Time-dependent measured (points) and calculated (lines) B-field in the anode plasma. The calculations assume a diffusive penetration at the classical Spitzer resistivity, , and at an anomalous resistivity ten times higher than the Spitzer value. Adapted from Ref. 6.
(a) Schematic representation of a plasma opening switch, in which a He dopant is introduced to measure the local B-field. Emission from the He dopant is measured parallel to the B-field from a direction normal to the page. (b) Example Zeeman split line profile measurement of the He I 2p-3d transition indicating a B-field of . (c) Measured B-field distribution at various times during the operation of the opening switch (points). The speed and distribution of the B-field contradicts penetration by magnetic diffusion. Adapted from Ref. 10.
(a) Schematic representation of a gas-puff z pinch. (b) Example line profile measurement (points) and calculation (lines) of the linearly (square points, solid line) and circularly (diamond points, dashed line) polarized components of the O IV 3s-3p line emission from oxygen in the gas puff indicating a B-field of . (c) Measured B-field distribution in the z-pinch plasma at one time during the implosion (points). Calculations assuming diffusive B-field penetration at a resistivity of (dotted line) and (dashed line) are in close agreement to the classical Spitzer value of . Adapted from Ref. 18.
Line profile measurements (points) and calculations (lines) of the fine-structure components from the Al III 4s-4p doublet transition indicating a B-field of 0.9 T. Adapted from Ref. 22.
(a) Example measurement of the Stark-shifted line profile of the Al III 4d-4p transition from an applied-B ion diode. (b) Measured (points) E-field distribution in the diode gap compared to a Brillouin-flow calculation of the distribution (dashed line). Adapted from Ref. 24.
Time- and multidimensional distribution of the E-field in the PBFA-II applied-B ion diode. The measurements are made using multiple streaked visible spectrometers to measure the time-dependent Stark shifting of the Li I 2s-2p transition from multiple LOSs covering a fraction of the radial and azimuthal extent of the diode gap.
Streaked spectra from the PBFA-II ion diode showing Stark-shifted time-dependent wavelength and line shape of the Li I 2s-2p and 2p-3d transitions. The 2p-3d transitions are not observed until the time-dependent E-field in the diode falls below . When the 2p-3d transitions are observed, they are split into components corresponding to quantum numbers and . Adapted from Ref. 32.
(a) Schematic representation of the ZPDH, which is composed of a nested tungsten wire array and a 6 mm diameter foam. (b) When the tungsten z pinch strikes the foam, it launches a radiating shock. (c) The radiating shock conditions are diagnosed by doping the central 3 mm height of the with 1% Si and spectrally resolving the Si emission from the shocked plasma. (d) The radiating shock is used to heat and backlight opacity samples at placed across an aperture in the upper electrode of the ZPDH. (d) X-ray emission from the radiating shock and the re-emission from the tungsten z pinch drive ICF capsules to fusion conditions.
(a) Calculated Si emission spectra from the radiating shock at (blue) and 370 eV (red) showing the sensitivity of the spectra to changes in electron temperature. (b) Calculated line profile of the Si XIII 1s-4p transition at (black), (red), and (blue) showing the sensitivity to changes in electron density.
(a) The measured Si emission spectrum (black points) from the radiating shock in the ZPDH at in comparison to CR models from the Weizmann Institute (red line) and SPECT3D (blue line). (b) Time-dependent electron temperature and (c) mass density of the shocked Si-doped during the implosion of the ZPDH inferred from comparisons to Si emission spectra using CR models from the Weizmann Institute (open diamonds) and SPECT3D (solid circles).
(a) Measured Mg K-shell absorption spectrum (black) in comparison to an Opal LTE calculation (red) at and . The Mg is mixed with Fe in a study of the Fe opacity on the ZPDH. (b) Measured Fe L-shell absorption spectrum (black) on the ZPDH in comparison to an Opal LTE calculation (red) at the conditions determined from the Mg comparison in (a).
Comparison of the measured Mg XI 1s-3p line profile (points) to a best-fit Voigt (blue) and a detailed calculation of the asymmetric Stark profile (red). The reduced chi squared of the Voigt fit is 5.5 and that of the detailed calculation is 1.2. Adapted from Ref. 55.
Space-integrated Ar emission spectrum measured from an ICF capsule implosion in the ZPDH (black) in comparison to a CR model (red) assuming a uniform sphere with and .
Measured spectra averaged over an time period from multiple slices passing through a compressed ICF capsule imploded in the ZPDH. The red band on the sphere in each plot indicates the approximate area of integration relative to the total size of the compressed core.
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