Visualization of a typical accelerating gradient of LWFA from an OSIRIS simulation. The surface represents the longitudinal electric field generated by a laser pulse moving to the left. Accelerated particles are represented by spheres colored by energy (violet/dark: low; red/light: high); the vertical position of the particles represents their energy. In this case, electron injection occurs in all of the first three buckets.
Comparison of spatial and temporal structure shapes in the laboratory frame (frame a) and boosted frame with relativistic factor (frames b1–3). The plasma is represented in grayscale (light background) and the laser envelope in orange (dark). A set of particle trajectories is also represented (lighter indicated higher energy). The scales in the boosted frame were set according to the Lorentz transformation of the respective quantity, namely, a compression of the density by , a dilatation of the laser pulse by , and an energy decrease approximated for very relativistic particles . In the boosted frame the contracted plasma column moves to the left with .
Electron density in the LWFA of the experiment described in Ref. 22 (laboratory frame simulation). Projections in the box walls refer to the plasma electron density (gray/light) and laser envelope (orange/dark). Isosurfaces are shown for the plasma wake (green/yellow—bubble shaped) and laser envelope (orange/light isosurfaces at the front). Electrons injected in the wake are represented by dots colored by energy (blue/light—low; red/dark—high).
Properties of a self-injected electron beam simulated in a relativistic boosted frame (Ref. 42). The output beam reaches above 8 GeV (frame a) after 27 cm propagation. The transverse position and momenta (frames b and c) show a good quality beam. This analysis emphasizes the relevance of simulating the LWFA in three-dimensions for direct correlation with experiment.
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