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Colored surface rendering of the transverse (laser) and longitudinal (wake) electric fields from a 2–1/2D Warp simulation of a 0.1 GeV LPA stage in the laboratory frame (left) and a boosted frame at (right), with the beam (white) in its early phase of acceleration. The laser and the beam are propagating from left to right.
Color plots of the laser field history on axis in a moving window propagating at the laser group velocity from simulations of a 0.1 GeV LPA: (top-left) in the laboratory frame; (top-right) in a boosted frame at ; (bottom-left) in a boosted frame at ; and (bottom-right) in a boosted frame at plotted in laboratory coordinates after Lorentz transformation of the data.
Spectral content history of the laser field on axis as it propagates through the plasma column for 0.1 GeV (left) and 10 GeV (right) stages, in the laboratory frame (top) and near the laser group velocity frames at (bottom-left) and 130 (bottom-right). The length scale (horizontal axis) is normalized relative to the vacuum laser wavelength as given in each respective frame.
Verification of the scaling (Refs. 9 and 22) of electron beam energy gain vs longitudinal position (in the laboratory frame) from direct simulations at down to (energy gains from 0.1 to 1 TeV), using Lorentz boosted frames of reference at between 12 and 1300, in 2–1/2D (top) and 3D (bottom). Energies and lengths from the lower energy stages were scaled to the highest energy stage to allow for direct comparison.
Snapshot from a 10 GeV LPA stage boosted frame simulation. The image shows an externally injected electron bunch (middle) riding a density wake excited by an intense laser pulse (right), propagating in a 0.65 m long plasma channel.
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