(Color online) (a) Computational cell with particle α in it and interpolation of coefficients and , forming the current density on grid nodes. The electric field is defined on grid nodes and the magnetic field is defined in the cell center; (b) computational domain with boundary conditions.
(Color online) Average energy of electrons, protons, carbon, and oxygen ions for linear polarization (left) and circular polarization (right) in the absence of driving electromagnetic field.
(Color online) Energy balance (a,b), energy balance terms of Eq. (19) (c,d), and energy absorbed by each specie (e,f). Linear and circular polarizations are on the left and right, respectively. Laser parameters: peak intensity W/m2, pulse duration fs, spot size μm, wavelength μm. Foil parameters: thickness μm (left), μm (right), nm, and width μm. The front of the foil is located at μm. The laser pulse enters the computational domain () at time fs and reaches the target at time .
(Color online) Time evolution of the average ion charges of carbon and oxygen. The parameters are the same as in Fig. 3.
(Color online) Electron and ion energy distribution functions. The parameters are the same as in Fig. 3.
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