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(Color online) (a) Schematic of the laser foil interaction. (b) Peak energy and the corresponding energy spread of the protons at time for different modulated targets.
(Color online) Spatial evolution of density spectrum  along the transverse direction for the electrons (a,d) and protons (b,e) for the flat cold target (left column), and the modulated target (right column). Transverse momentum distribution of protons  at for the flat (c) and modulated (f) targets.
(Color online) Spatial density distribution of protons  at for the flat (a) and the modulated (b). Spatial and temporal evolution of proton longitudinal density  of the flat (c) and modulated (d) targets. Here .
(Color online) Energy spectrum of protons at (thin lines) and (thick lines) for the flat target with thickness of (dotted lines), and for the initially modulated target (solid lines).
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