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(Color online) Experimental setup for breakdown delay time measurements.
(Color online) (a) Measured incident power waveform (solid black line) with analytical approximation (dashed red) and normalized reflected power (solid blue). (b) Ionization and diffusion loss rates at 700 Torr during the rise of the microwave pulse, calculated with empirical expressions and E rms (t).
(Color online) Number of events N t observed after time t (black circles), as a fraction of total measurement number N 0, at (a) 20 Torr, (b) 62 Torr, and (c) 580 Torr. The solid black curves are Gaussian probability distribution fits to the data. The solid red curves are the theoretical formative distribution of Eq. (8).
(Color online) Measured formation time (open circles) versus pressure. The solid red curve is calculated from the formative time distribution theory of Eq. (8)
(Color online) Comparison of breakdown time and field amplitude data between the present 110 GHz experiment (black circles), Gould et al. 27 (open squares), Felsenthal et al. 28 (red diamonds), and Neuber et al. 29 (black crosses).
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