(Color online) Existence domains for ion acoustic solitons for parameter values: Ti = 0.1 eV, Tc = 30 eV, Th = 1 keV. For Saturnian conditions, with κc = 2.0, κh = 3.0, positive and negative potential solitons are bounded by curves A 1 and B 1, and A 1 and C 1, respectively. Similarly, for κc = κh = ∞ (Maxwellian case), positive and negative potential solitons are bounded by curves A 2 and B 2, and A 2 and C 2, respectively.
(Color online) Variation of soliton amplitude for different spectral index values κ = κc = κh , for the temperature values in Fig. 1, with f = 0.85 and M = 2.614.
(Color online) Typical soliton profiles for a bi-Maxwellian plasma, including the structure found at the lowest Mach number, Ms . The parameter values, shown on the figure, are as in Fig. 1. In the left panel, f = 0.75, in the right panel, f = 0.65. For this case, .
(Color online) Finite solitons at M = Ms in the “coexistence” region: Above fc the amplitude at Ms is finite for ϕ > 0 and goes to zero for ϕ < 0. The reverse is true for f < fc . The negative polarity solitons are arbitrarily cut off at an amplitude of 3.
(Color online) Solutions of α 3(f) = 0 obtained from KdV theory (continuous, blue) for τ = 1/300, β = 0.03, and κc = κh . The dotted (red) curve superimposed on f 1 represents the critical values of f, denoted fc , for which at M = Ms .
(Color online) Variation of fc with temperature ratio β. The parameters labeling the curves are: Curve I: κc = κh = ∞, τ = Ti /Tc = 0, curve II: κc = 2; κh = 3, τ = 0, and curve III: κc = 2; κh = 3, τ = 1/300, respectively. Inside the curves, , while outside the curves, .
(Color online) Existence domain for positive double layers for a plasma with Maxwellian electron components and cold ions, with β = 0.09. Continuous curve: Positive soliton cutoff due to ion density; dotted curve: negative double layers acting as a soliton cutoff; dashed curve: positive double layers, which do not act as a soliton cutoff. The critical values of fc are and .
(Color online) Existence domains for solitons and double layers for a low-kappa case, with β = 0.25. There is no positive soliton cutoff (continuous curve) for M > Mdl , and double layers (dashed curve) thus act as a soliton cutoff. Left panel: τ = 0, with , , and ; Right panel: τ = 1/300, with , and , respectively.
(Color online) As in Fig. 8, now with β = 0.3. Left panel: τ = 1/300, with , , and . Right panel: τ = 0, with , , and .
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