Schematic of the experimental setup. The insets show (top) the focal intensity distribution and (bottom) the image of the irradiated droplet in the VUV.
X-ray spectra emitted by the laser-irradiated droplet at a laser energy of 2.4 J (a), and ∼0.01 J (b). Lineouts in (c), dashed lines show tabulated line positions.
(left) Spectra as in Fig. 2 (red/thick: 2.4 J laser energy, blue/dashed: 0.01 J) in the spectral region below 3100 eV, with KL-transitions of argon at different charge states [Refs. 18 and 19]. (right) Average charge state (line) and FWHM of ionization distribution (shaded) vs. temperature, calculated by FLYCHK.
(a) Spectrum at 2.4 J laser energy (red), together with best fit (blue) obtained with FLYCHK. (b) Weights of the spectra at different temperatures to obtain the fit in Fig. 4(a).
(a) K-alpha intensity (solid lines) and bulk target temperature evolution (dashed lines) for hot-electron temperatures of T hot = 0.25, 0.5, and 1 MeV (blue, green, red, respectively), as calculated by the collisional model. (b) Space- and time-integrated K-alpha yields obtained at different bulk target temperatures. Solid lines/filled symbols (dashed lines/open symbols) for a total K-alpha yield of 8 × 1010 (1.6 × 1011) photons.
(a) Bulk target temperature evolution for T hot, = 0.5 MeV, calculated by the model including resistive heating (solid, thick). For comparison, the result from the collisional-only model is shown (solid, thin). (b) K-alpha yields obtained at different bulk target temperatures, as calculated by thetwo models for T hot = 0.5, MeV (thick: collisional + resistive, thin: collisional only). The solid and dashed lines are for a total K-alpha yield of 8 × 1010 and 1.6 × 1011 photons, respectively.
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