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Observation of the generation and evolution of long-lived runaway electron beams during major disruptions in the HuanLiuqi-2A tokamak
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10.1063/1.3696073
/content/aip/journal/pop/19/3/10.1063/1.3696073
http://aip.metastore.ingenta.com/content/aip/journal/pop/19/3/10.1063/1.3696073

Figures

Image of FIG. 1.
FIG. 1.

Arrangement of soft x-ray cameras in the HL-2A tokamak.

Image of FIG. 2.
FIG. 2.

The line emission of metallic impurities on the soft x-ray spectrum in HL-2A obtained by the SDD soft x-ray spectrometer.

Image of FIG. 3.
FIG. 3.

The time development of the main parameters in a major disruption. From top to bottom: plasma current I, plasma surface loop voltage V, central line-averaged density n, H emission intensity H, soft x-ray emission intensity SXR, plasma emission power P, hard x-ray emission intensity HXR, neutron emission rate NFM, ECE intensity, and Mirnov coil signal measured at the weak field side.

Image of FIG. 4.
FIG. 4.

Temporal evolutions of the electron temperature and electron temperature profiles before and during disruption for shot 15335. (a) Central electron temperature; (b) electron temperature profiles.

Image of FIG. 5.
FIG. 5.

The generation and evolution of a long-lived runaway electron beam during a major disruption in discharge No 15335. The contour plot of the soft x-ray radiation was obtained by the above soft x-ray camera on the low field side. The intensity of the soft x-ray radiation is presented in arbitrary units. The isolated hot spots may be produced by the enhanced Bremsstrahlung caused by dust particles entering the runaway electron beam zone. The four arrows indicate the four phases (a, b, c, d) of the disruption.

Image of FIG. 6.
FIG. 6.

Temporal evolution of the plasma internal inductance for shot 15335 obtained from EFIT calculations.

Image of FIG. 7.
FIG. 7.

Temporal evolutions of E/E during disruption for shot 15335.

Image of FIG. 8.
FIG. 8.

Temporal evolution of plasma images before and during disruption for shot 15335 obtained by a visible CCD camera. The plasma channel gradually drifts to the inward vessel wall and interacts with the wall during the runaway current plateau. At 972 ms, the plasma image almost disappears. The time resolution of the CCD camera is 9 ms.

Image of FIG. 9.
FIG. 9.

Temporal evolutions of the plasma current center for shot 15335 obtained from EFIT calculations.

Image of FIG. 10.
FIG. 10.

Magnetic configuration reconstruction for the shot 15335 disruption using the EFIT code. (a) Magnetic probe signal obtained during disruption; (b) sequence of images is presented for the time points (t, t, t, … , t) marked by an arrow in chart a. Strong deformation of the magnetic configuration have been observed between t = 928 ms and t = 934 ms.

Tables

Generic image for table
Table I.

K shell excitation radiation of metallic ions.

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/content/aip/journal/pop/19/3/10.1063/1.3696073
2012-03-29
2014-04-25
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752b84549af89a08dbdd7fdb8b9568b5 journal.articlezxybnytfddd
Scitation: Observation of the generation and evolution of long-lived runaway electron beams during major disruptions in the HuanLiuqi-2A tokamak
http://aip.metastore.ingenta.com/content/aip/journal/pop/19/3/10.1063/1.3696073
10.1063/1.3696073
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