The comparison of the nonlinearity associated with the relativistic effect and ponderomotive force and the nonlinearity associated with the VPM effects with for different values of . (a) , (b) .
(a) The Sagdeev potential for one-dimensional envelope solitary waves with , for different values of ; (b) the Sagdeev potential for one-dimensional envelope solitary waves with and for different electron number density .
The behavior of the amplitude of the soliton as a function of . (a) For different electron number density , with parameters and ; (b) for different values of , with parameters and .
The numerical results of an initially Gaussian pulse, with and , propagates in e-p plasmas with .
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