Net charge-density distributions (normalized by their initial values) along the laser propagation axis () at (a) and (b) . The blue solid and green dotted curves show the charge densities of the Al and H plasmas, respectively, the red dashed and purple dot-dashed curves show the normalized total charge and , respectively. For clarity, the latter are displaced by +0.75 and −0.9, respectively.
(red dotted curve), (blue dot-dashed curve), proton density (green solid curve), and Al ion density (purple dashed curve) on at (a) and (b) . Here, is normalized by the initial laser amplitude. The vertical dashed lines mark the front boundaries of the H and Al layers. For clarity, the insets show the magnified center regions of the figures.
2D distributions of (a) the laser field and (b) the charge-separation field at .
The electrostatic field (blue dotted-dashed curve), and the Al ion (black dashed curve) and proton (red solid curve) densities on at .
2D Proton density distribution at (a) and (b) . (c) Proton density on at , 18, 30, 42, 54, 66, 78, and 90, respectively. The initial proton density is .
(a) Evolution of the energy spectrum of the proton bunch and (b) the average energy of the forward propagating protons (blue solid curve) and average energy of the faster (upper 40%) protons (green dashed curve).
Evolution of the proton energy spectrum for a target with smaller (located in ) H layer.
Energy density at for two targets with different initial H-layer densities and Al-layer densities. Blue dashed curve: Al layer thickness , H layer thickness . Green solid curve: Al layer thickness , H layer thickness . The other parameters are the same as those in Fig. 7.
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