Geometric details of the beam, the guide, and the gap.
In the single-electron regime, variations of the spatial growth rate coefficients and with the normalized time for different values of .
In the collective regime, variations of the spatial growth rate with for different values of .
Spatial growth rate coefficients , , and versus frequency. has a great expansion of the amplification band. In the collective regime as an example, when the relaxation effect is taken into account ( is finite), the amplification bandwidth becomes narrower.
In the single-electron and collective limits, the gain coefficients versus frequency for different values of . The case for Si () and GaAs () are shown.
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