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Measurements of the runaway electron energy during disruptions in the tokamak TEXTOR
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10.1063/1.4717759
/content/aip/journal/pop/19/5/10.1063/1.4717759
http://aip.metastore.ingenta.com/content/aip/journal/pop/19/5/10.1063/1.4717759
View: Figures

Figures

Image of FIG. 1.
FIG. 1.

Linear electron stopping powers of graphite, molybdenum and tungsten; calculated as the products of the densities and the mass stopping powers according to the ESTAR database. (a) Total linear electron stopping power including the radiative and collisional contributions. (b) Radiative linear electron stopping power. (c) Ratio of radiative to total electron stopping power.

Image of FIG. 2.
FIG. 2.

Scheme of the calorimeter probe. A carbon fibre composite (CFC) is used as a shield against the plasma. The heating of an EK98 graphite and a molybdenum slab by the RE is measured by thermocouples in the material, which is thermally insulated against the probe holder by a slab of Sintimid.

Image of FIG. 3.
FIG. 3.

Geant4 code simulation of the impact of a RE beam from one TEXTOR disruption onto the calorimeter probe. (a) Temperature profile of the EK98 graphite part after the RE impact. (b) Temperature profile of the molybdenum part after the RE impact.

Image of FIG. 4.
FIG. 4.

Temporal evolution of (a) the loop voltage and (b) the plasma current during a typical disruption of the campaign.

Image of FIG. 5.
FIG. 5.

Scheme of the poloidal cross section of TEXTOR showing the geometry during the probe measurement.

Image of FIG. 6.
FIG. 6.

Typical calorimetric measurement during a RE impact with added dashed lines used for the estimation of the temperature increase. (a) Signals of thermocouples inside the EK 98 graphite. (b) Signals of thermocouples inside the molybdenum.

Image of FIG. 7.
FIG. 7.

Photograph of the calorimeter probe taken after the experiments, with three arrows indicating the erosion of the CFC, the isotropic graphite (C) and the melting of the molybdenum (Mo), respectively.

Image of FIG. 8.
FIG. 8.

RE energies, measured by the calorimeter probe and resulting from scintillator probe studies, over the RE current. (a) Overview of the measured values and a dashed line which indicates an upper limit according to the geometrical interpretation of the data. (b) Mean values of the RE energy.

Image of FIG. 9.
FIG. 9.

RE energies over the radial position of the calorimeter probe. (a) Overview of the measured values and a dashed line which indicates an upper limit according to the geometrical interpretation of the data. (b) Mean RE energies.

Image of FIG. 10.
FIG. 10.

RE currents over the toroidal magnetic field. (a) Overview of the measured RE currents and a dashed line which outlines the maximum values. (b) Mean RE currents.

Image of FIG. 11.
FIG. 11.

RE energies, measured by the calorimeter probe, over the toroidal magnetic field. (a) Overview of the measured values and a dashed line which indicates an upper limit according to the geometrical interpretation of the data. (b) Mean RE energies.

Image of FIG. 12.
FIG. 12.

RE currents over the predisruptive plasma current. (a) Overview of the measured RE currents and a dashed line which outlines the maximum values. (b) Mean RE currents.

Image of FIG. 13.
FIG. 13.

RE energies, measured by the calorimeter probe and estimated from energy spectra measured by the scintillator probe, over the predisruptive plasma current. (a) Overview of the measured values and a dashed line which indicates an upper limit according to the geometrical interpretation of the data. (b) Mean RE energies.

Image of FIG. 14.
FIG. 14.

Conversion efficiencies of the predisruptive magnetic plasma energy into RE energy over the plasma current for calorimeter and scintillator probe data. (a) Conversion efficiencies resulting from the measured RE energies and a dashed line which outlines the maximum values. (b) conversion efficiencies resulting from the mean RE energies.

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/content/aip/journal/pop/19/5/10.1063/1.4717759
2012-05-18
2014-04-20
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752b84549af89a08dbdd7fdb8b9568b5 journal.articlezxybnytfddd
Scitation: Measurements of the runaway electron energy during disruptions in the tokamak TEXTOR
http://aip.metastore.ingenta.com/content/aip/journal/pop/19/5/10.1063/1.4717759
10.1063/1.4717759
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