Simulation setup: A symmetric flux expander is generated by current wires with The simulation domain has in the horizontal direction and in the vertical direction. The plasma is uniform in the z direction (out of plane) and symmetric about x = 0.
The effective potential due to both mirror force and ambipolar electric field.
The electron and ion distribution  contour from the VPIC kinetic simulation. The left panel is at , and the right panel is at .
Top: The ion temperature profile from simulation and analytical result; Bottom: the ion parallel heat flux from the simulation and analytical result.
Top: The ion density from analytical and simulation results agree, and the passing electron density is much smaller; Bottom: the ion (electron) parallel flow speed (normalized to ) increases towards the wall. Here, the sound speed is defined as .
The electron integration boundaries.
Top: The electron temperature (solid line) from simulation, and the passing electron temperature (dashed line with □) from analytical result; Bottom: the electron parallel heat flux from kinetic simulation (solid line) and analytical (dashed line with □) result, and the passing electron parallel heat flux (dashed line with ×) from analytical result.
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