(a) The region between the two dashed horizontal lines in panel (a) is forbidden for linear propagation, where in fact, the solitons are allowed to occur. 29 The parameters are , and . (b) The family of dispersion curves for the ion-cyclotron (upper) and ion-acoustic waves (lower) for different values of σ. The other parameters are and .
(a) Sagdeev potential for Maxwellian electrons and (b) for highly super thermal electrons . The parameters are , and . Note the increase in depth and width of the potential in case of super thermal electrons.
(a) Domains of existence of solitons in the two limiting cases in the parameter space. Solitons exist only in the left sides of the surfaces. The surface on the front (red) is for and the other (blue) is for . (b) Projection of the surfaces showing the regions of existence of solitons in the space. The right side boundaries of the regions are for higher σ.
(a) Dependences of soliton amplitude A on Mach number. (b) Dependences of soliton width Δ on Mach number. The arrows show the position of lower limits of the respective Mach numbers. The blue (dashed) curves are for and the solid (black) curves are for (Maxwellian electrons). The parameters are same as in Fig. 2 .
(a) Evolution of soliton as κ approaches 3/2 from a large value. (b) The bi-polar electric field corresponding to (a). Use the right hand side axis for the case when , which is very large compared to others.
Bi-polar electrostatic pulse in real-time units. The solid (red) curves are for highly Lorentzian electrons ( ) and the dashed (blue) curves are for Maxwellian electrons.
Article metrics loading...
Full text loading...