Photo of the non-equilibrium plasma device.
(a) Electrical parameters of the discharge and (b) typical photographs indicting propagation of ionization front.
Temporal evolution of average plasma density in atmospheric plasma jet for UHV = 2.2 kV.
Temporal evolution of discharge current (Id ), discharge voltage (Ud ), and streamer head potential (Uh ). Potential of streamer head is close to potential of central electrode and following its temporal behavior in all cases. This indicates that voltage drops potential of central electrode is transferred to the streamer head without significant drops.
Selectivity effect of plasma treatment: fibroblast cells treated with the cold plasma device for 0, 30, 60, and 120 s. (a) 24 h; (b) 48 h Neuroblastoma; (c)24 h; (d) 48 h. Annexin V and 7-AAD staining were performed for flow cytometry analysis at 24 and 48 h after treatment. Four-quadrant analysis of the results characterizes the cells as viable (unstained), apoptotic (Annexin V positive), late-apoptotic (double positive), and dead (7-AAD positive).
(a) Cold plasma device; (b) typical image of mice with a single tumor before and approximately 1 week after treatment.
The cell population's distribution during the cell cycle after CAP treatment. ((a)–(c)) Wild type keratinocytes, ((d)–(f)) papilloma (308) cells, and ((g)–(I)) carcinoma (PAM 212) cells are shown. ((a),(d),(g)) Bright-field images of WTK, epidermal papilloma (308 cells), and epidermal carcinoma (PAM212 cells) cells are shown with a magnification of 10×. The schematic diagrams in the up-right corner represent the typical distributions of the cell populations inside the cell cycle. The detailed studies of the cell cycles for control and cells treated with CAP for 60 s in 24 h after treatment are shown. The correlation between DNA content (propidium iodide) and DNA-replicating cells (EdU-component) is shown for: ((b),(c))—normal cells (WTK); ((e),(f))—papilloma cells (308 cells); and ((h),(i))—carcinoma cells (PAM212 cells) in ∼24 h after CAP treatment. CV was used to characterize the propidium iodide data (linear scale) and s.d. was used for EdU-data (log scale) in each phase. Fractions of the number of cells in each cell cycle phase are shown in percents. The data are shown for ∼25 000 cells for each experimental condition. The experiments were repeated 2–3 times.
Typical discharge and plasma parameters of the CAP.
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