Non-dimensional magnetic flux per unit length in y-direction χ as a function of the non-dimensional coordinate [see Eq. (39) ]; the slightly different turning point location for ions (red) and electrons (blue) gives rise to the very thin charged surface layer (double layer) at the interface with the vacuum magnetic field.
Non-dimensional charge density separation (relation (45) ) in the surface layer as function of the non-dimensional coordinate .
Non-dimensional magnetic field, electric field, potential, and density in the surface layer as functions of the normalized distance .
Initial configuration of the one-dimension collision between a particle of mass m and velocity and a piston of mass MP and velocity , moving in opposite directions.
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