(a) The profiles of electron temperature, ion temperature, and electron density as a function of normalized minor radius, where and are the averaged minor radius and plasma size, which encompasses 99% of the electron stored energy, respectively. Profiles are shown of (b) the radial electric field, (c) the poloidal flow, and (d) the toroidal flow. The predictions of neoclassical theory calculated by FORTEC-3D code are plotted by dashed lines in (b), (c), and (d). The toroidal flow measurement with the CXS diagnostic have an uncertainty ( ) in the absolute value, which is shown in (d). The poloidal flow can be measured with much higher accuracy than toroidal flow. In a strict sense, this is a velocity of carbon impurity flow, and the bulk hydrogen ions have a slightly different flow velocity. The difference of flow velocity between carbon and hydrogen ions was evaluated by neoclassical code GSRAKE, 25 and the calibrated flow velocity of bulk hydrogen ions is also shown by dashed red lines.
Spontaneous flow velocity measured at without net external driving force as functions of (a) electron density at , (b) normalized density gradient, and (c) the normalized collisionality.
The profiles of electron temperature, ion temperature, and electron density of (a) co-flowing plasma (SN. 109929, ) and (b) counter-flowing plasma (SN. 106013, ). These plasmas have collisionality close to the separation point. (c) The profiles of flow velocity in these plasmas are shown with closed circles. The flow velocity of bulk hydrogen ions calibrated with neoclassical theory is also shown by dashed lines.
(a) The poloidal flow velocity and (b) the toroidal flow velocity profiles. (c) Poincaré map of the magnetic field at the horizontally elongated cross section of the co-flowing and (d) counter-flowing plasmas shown in Figs. 3(a) and 3(b) , respectively.
Density fluctuation measured by a 2D-PCI diagnostic of (a) co-flowing plasma and (b) counter-flowing plasma, which are the same plasma shown in Figs. 3(a) and 3(b) , respectively. Color indicates the amplitude in a logarithmic scale ( (arb. units)). The vertical axis denotes propagating velocity perpendicular to the magnetic field (poloidal dominated). The positive velocity is in the ion-diamagnetic drift direction. The E × B drift velocity is also shown with blue lines.
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