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Pictorial representation of the hot electron expansion volume at the quasi-static equilibrium for both a semi-infinite and a finite target thickness. In the latter, close to the axis is increased by recirculation.
Comparison of the predicted with the results of Ref. 11 . Blue circles (red diamonds) represent the energies measured for UHC (LC) pulses, while the blue band corresponds to the model predictions retrieved for a divergence range.
resulting from 2D-PIC simulations (blue circles) at fixed laser intensity ( ), pulse duration ( ), fluence and variable pulse energy, compared with model predictions (red curve) evaluated for the same laser-target parameters and . In the inset, hot electron spectra for some numerical runs are displayed. The temperatures extracted from the slopes of these spectra correspond to lower values with respect to the PM estimate for . However, a proper estimate of the simulated hot electron temperature is a difficult task depending on further aspects (time evolution, cold electrons, dimensionality).
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