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A Thomson-type mass and energy spectrometer for characterizing ion energy distributions in a coaxial plasma gun operating in a gas-puff mode
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View: Figures


Image of FIG. 1.
FIG. 1.

Schematic of the Stanford coaxial plasma gun with solid anode. Electric current gives rise to magnetic field . The anode was replaced with fifteen 5 mm diameter rods for the data shown in Figs. 2 , and 7–10 .

Image of FIG. 2.
FIG. 2.

(After Ref. ) Fast images of the visible emission during (a) the snowplow mode, and (b) the gas-puff mode of operation in the Stanford coaxial plasma accelerator. Image exposure time = 100 ns, Applied potential= 4 kV, Capacitance = 112 F.

Image of FIG. 3.
FIG. 3.

Schematic of the Thomson-type mass and energy spectrometer.

Image of FIG. 4.
FIG. 4.

Magnetic field measurements used for Geant4 simulations.

Image of FIG. 5.
FIG. 5.

Electric field calculations used for Geant4 simulations. Contours represent electric potential and vectors represent electric field. The magnet structure, detector, and top and bottom boundaries of the calculation region were assumed to be at the reference (ground) condition.

Image of FIG. 6.
FIG. 6.

Example Geant4 simulations for protons of different energies. Ion trajectories are represented by blue curved lines.

Image of FIG. 7.
FIG. 7.

Image of measured proton Thomson parabola with overlying Geant4 calibration. Incorporating accurate non-uniform magnetic and electric fields improves species identification and calibration accuracy.

Image of FIG. 8.
FIG. 8.

Image processing to extract Thomson parabolas: (a) original image, (b) conversion to binary image for least-squares fit to Thomson parabola, (c) superimposed fit onto mean-filtered original image, (d) extracted intensity (arbitrary units) along fit parabola.

Image of FIG. 9.
FIG. 9.

Proton energy spectrum for single accelerator pulse. 4 kV applied voltage, 900 J capacitor bank energy. Uncertainty bars are shown for select points of the spectrum.

Image of FIG. 10.
FIG. 10.

Left panel: MCP detector image of measured Thomson parabolas with Geant4 calibration overlaid for anaccelerator pulse which exhibited contaminant species in the beam. Right panel: Energy spectra for contaminant species, assuming they are various charge states of iron.


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752b84549af89a08dbdd7fdb8b9568b5 journal.articlezxybnytfddd
Scitation: A Thomson-type mass and energy spectrometer for characterizing ion energy distributions in a coaxial plasma gun operating in a gas-puff mode