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We reanalyse an arbitrary-wavelength gyrokinetic formalism [A. M. Dimits, Phys. Plasmas , 055901 (2010)], which orders only the vorticity to be small and allows strong, time-varying flows on medium and long wavelengths. We obtain a simpler gyrocentre Lagrangian up to second order. In addition, the gyrokinetic Poisson equation, derived either via variation of the system Lagrangian or explicit density calculation, is consistent with that of the weak-flow gyrokinetic formalism [T. S. Hahm, Phys. Fluids , 2670 (1988)] at all wavelengths in the weak flow limit. The reanalysed formalism has been numerically implemented as a particle-in-cell code. An iterative scheme is described which allows for numerical solution of this system of equations, given the implicit dependence of the Euler-Lagrange equations on the time derivative of the potential.


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