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Emission of electron Bernstein waves in plasmas
1.A. K. Ram and S. D. Schultz, Phys. Plasmas 7, 4084 (2000).
2.A. Bers, A. K. Ram, and S. D. Schultz, in Proceedings of the Second Europhysics Topical Conference on RF Heating and Current Drive of Fusion Devices, edited by J. Jacquinot, G. Van Oost, and R. R. Weynants (European Physical Society, Petit-Lancy, 1998), Vol. 22A, pp. 237–240.
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8.See, for example, W. P. Allis, S. J. Buchsbaum, and A. Bers, Waves in Anisotropic Plasmas (Massachusetts Institute of Technology Press, Cambridge, MA, 1963), Sec. 8.5;
8.A. Bers, in Plasma Physics—Les Houches 1972, edited by C. DeWitt and J. Peyraud (Gordon and Breach, New York, 1975), pp. 126–137; and
8.T. Stix, Waves in Plasmas (American Institute of Physics, New York, 1992), pp. 74–78.
9.H. Berk and D. L. Book, Phys. Fluids 12, 649 (1969).
10.The usual Onsager relationships are based upon the transformation of phase space dynamics and real fields under time reversibility; in this paper, in space and for complex amplitude fields, we consider the transformation of time-averaged energy flow under time reversibility.
11.A. Bers and A. K. Ram, “General proof of symmetries in mode conversions,” Bull. Am. Phys. Soc. (in press).
12.The exact kinetic dispersion relation is where and is the exact kinetic permittivity tensor (Ref. 8).
13.It should be noted that, unlike the X and O modes, the EBW is a backward wave, i.e., its group velocity is in the opposite direction to its phase velocity. The dispersion characteristics in Figs. 6 and 7 are symmetric about Hence, the direction, in x, of the wave energy flow for the designated waves must be associated, as appropriate, with positive or negative
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