Volume 29, Issue 2, March 1998
Study of high-lying cluster states of nuclei by the method of particle–particle angular correlations29(1998); http://dx.doi.org/10.1134/1.953062View Description Hide Description
The current status of research on nuclear reactions induced by light and semiheavy ions of energy up to 10 MeV/nucleon on light and intermediate nuclei by measurement of the angular correlation functions of the final products is reviewed. The principal theoretical and experimental studies on particle–particle correlations carried out in recent years are analyzed. The methods of calculating the angular correlation functions and the spin tensors of the reaction-product density matrix for reactions involving excited states using the distorted-wave method with finite interaction range and the modified compound-nucleus model are described. The and correlations in reactions involving and ions are analyzed. The highly excited α-cluster states in and are studied. The polarizationtensors of the nucleus in the state are calculated and compared with experiment. It is shown that the particle–particle angular correlation functions and the polarizationtensors can provide unique information about the reaction mechanism and about the structure of the wave functions of highly excited nuclear states, including the nature of the radial dependence in the interior of the nucleus and the optical interaction potentials in the entrance and exit reaction channels, and so on. This review can be useful for both theoreticians and experimentalists working on the physics of nuclear reactions involving particles of moderate energy.
29(1998); http://dx.doi.org/10.1134/1.953063View Description Hide Description
The current status of the present and future energy sources available to mankind is reviewed. Fundamentally new directions in the future development of nuclear power based on the fission of heavy nuclei are proposed. It appears realistic to build a new generation of nuclear power plants which are free from the current defects, produce minimal radioactive waste, and use up almost all the natural uranium or thorium fuel.
29(1998); http://dx.doi.org/10.1134/1.953064View Description Hide Description
The various aspects of the formation of the fragment mass–energy distributions from the fission of excited nuclei in the range in heavy-ion reactions are reviewed. These are: the actual temperature of the fissioning nucleus after the emission of prefission particles, the effect of the angular momentum transferred to the nucleus by the incident ion, the static features of the formation of the fragment distributions of very light nuclei, the role and nature of dynamical effects in the descent of the nucleus from the saddle point to the scission point in the case of heavy nuclei, and the properties of quasi-fission. A fairly complete summary is given of both the experimental data on all these aspects and the theoretical understanding based on current ideas about the fission process.
Problems in the physics of ion–atom collisions important for accelerator technology and alternative nuclear power29(1998); http://dx.doi.org/10.1134/1.953065View Description Hide Description
Some problems of accelerator technology and the practical use of high-intensity proton and ion beams for fundamental and applied research and nuclear power production based on the use of accelerated particle beams and subcritical reactors are briefly described. All these problems require detailed study of ion–atom collision physics. The main problems in developing theoretical methods for calculating the differential and total effective cross sections for processes occurring in fast ion–atom collisions, where the two colliding particles are multielectron systems, are discussed. Methods are given for the approximate calculation of the angular and energy distributions of ions and electrons in the ionization of multielectron ions and atoms with accuracy sufficient for practical applications.