Volume 30, Issue 2, March 1999
The qualitative theory of elementary transformations of one- and multichannel quantum systems in the inverse-problem approach. The construction of transformations with given spectral parameters30(1999); http://dx.doi.org/10.1134/1.953100View Description Hide Description
New results on simple, universal algorithms of spectrum, scattering, and decay control are reviewed. The limiting (most informative) cases are studied, such as the separation in space and in energy of seemingly inseparable states close in energy and in the shape of the moduli of their wave functions, and conversely, decrease of the level spacing to the point where the levels become degenerate. The enrichment of the set of elementary transformations in going to multichannel systems (to a vector structure of the spectral parameters, the levers for controlling coupled channels) is demonstrated. For example, it becomes possible to concentrate waves in a single channel by “pumping” them out of other channels. It becomes clear that soliton-like potential wells are the “carriers” of not only one-channel, but also partial channel states when they are separated from the other states. A reflectionless interaction which has no analog in the one-channel case is described. The “paradoxical” coexistence of confinement and transparency at the same energy for the same interaction is discussed.
30(1999); http://dx.doi.org/10.1134/1.953101View Description Hide Description
The experimental and theoretical data giving evidence of nonstatistical effects in the excitation and decay of highly excited nuclear states and resonances of compound nuclei are reviewed. Nonstatistical effects manifested in β decay, delayed processes, and nuclear reactions involving low-energy protons are analyzed. The reasons for the appearance of nonstatistical effects are discussed.
30(1999); http://dx.doi.org/10.1134/1.953102View Description Hide Description
In the first part of this paper we introduce a suitable formulation of the hydrodynamical description of compact stars in a curved space-timemanifold using the tetrad formalism. In the second part of the paper we review new developments concerning the possibility of quark deconfinement in neutron stars. Contrary to earlier claims, it is shown that “neutron” stars may very well contain quark matter in their cores, which may register itself in an observable signal—an anomaly in the braking index of pulsars.
Methods of measuring masses in nuclear physics. The basis of mass analysis is the dispersion of ions or charged particles30(1999); http://dx.doi.org/10.1134/1.953103View Description Hide Description
The dispersion of ions and charged particles in mass analyzers of widely varying types as a fundamental component of the method of measuring masses is reviewed. The theory of spatial and time dispersion by magnetic and electric analyzers, and also analyzers with combined magnetic and electric fields of all types is discussed. In addition to the well known concepts of mass analysis, recent theoretical developments are discussed, including new practical proposals filed as inventions.
Cytogenetic damage in cells of experimental animals and man induced by accelerated charged particles and cosmic rays30(1999); http://dx.doi.org/10.1134/1.953104View Description Hide Description
The results of the authors’ own research and literature results on cytogenetic effects in corneal epithelium cells of mice and in human peripheral blood lymphocytes in vitro induced by protons of various energies, low-energy heavy ions, and accelerated relativistic nuclei are reviewed. The studies were performed using the accelerators of the Joint Institute for Nuclear Research. The coefficients of relative biological effectiveness of these types of radiation have been determined, and their dependence on various biological and physical factors has been demonstrated. This review also presents the results of the first studies of chromosomal aberrations in the blood lymphocytes of astronauts before and after space flights. It has been shown that the frequency of aberrant cells and of chromosomal aberrations increases after long space flights. The damage to the hereditary apparatus of cells due to exposure to ionizing radiation may lead to undesirable consequences in the distant future.