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Techniques for Processing Thick Nuclear Emulsions
1.M. Wiener and H. Yagoda, Rev. Sci. Instr. 21, 39 (1950).
2.G. Albouy, Compt. Rend. 230, 1351 (1950).
3.In “blob” counting no attempt is made to resolve Ag grains which touch. This counting convention yields higher reproducibility than does grain counting.
4.M. G. E. Cosyns and G. Vanderhaeghe, Bull. centre phys. nucteaire, No. 15 (April, 1951).
5.(a) Dilworth, Occhialini, and Payne, Nature 162, 102 (1948);
5.(b) Dilworth, Occhialini, and Vermaesen, Bulletin du Centre de Physique Nucleaire, 13a (February, 1950).
6.Bonetti, Dilworth, and Occhialini, Bulletin du Centre de Physique Nucleaire, 13b (March, 1951).
7.Dainton, Gattiker, and Lock, Phil. Mag. 42, 396 (1951).
8.A. J. Herz, J. Sci. Instr. 29, 60 (1952).
9.The shelves can accommodate plates of various sizes, up to 8 in. Different wire spacers are used for the different sizes, to prevent the plates from sliding over one another in the solutions. The same set of shelves A are used both in the “wet” stage and in the subsequent “dry development” stage, when they are inserted into the “dry” rack.
10.The composition of this clearing solution was kindly communicated, prior to publication, by Dr. H. Yagoda.
11.In some experiments it may be worthwhile to suffer a high background if one can, through higher grain densities, facilitate the measurement of multiple Coulomb scattering along low‐ionization tracks. However, if easy visibility in scanning is a strong desideratum, as it usually is in cosmic‐ray studies, then it should be noted that higher grain densities may actually be associated with poorer visibility. Another disadvantage of high minimum grain densities is the relatively poor discrimination in grain counting at ionization levels above, say, twice the minimum. This arises from the increased clumping of Ag grains, and leads to lower precision in determination of velocities.
12.The Brussels group (reference 6, p. 2) define a coefficient of distortion which is a measure of the distortion independent of the emulsion thickness. Here K is the distortion vector, defined in the first part of the present paper, and T is the emulsion thickness. If K is expressed in microns, and T in millimeters, then k is measured in “covans,” a unit named for M. G. Cosyns and G. Vanderhaege.
13.Multiple‐scattering measurements on reasonably flat tracks are not seriously affected by this distortion. Mean scattering angles down to have been measured on tracks in these plates.
14.A. J. Herz and M. Edgar, Proc. Phys. Soc. (London) A66, 115 (1953).
15.Emulsions without support, sometimes called “pellicles,” have been used for many years. P. Demers, Can. J. Research A28, 628 (1950), combined them in multilayered stacks to extend the continuously observable paths of charged particles.
16.Private communication, for which we are indebted to Mr. C. Waller, of Ilford, Ltd.
17.Stiller, Shapiro, and O’Dell, Phys. Rev. 85, 712 (A) (1952).
18.Methods of handling pellicles have also been developed by the Bristol group; C. F. Powell, Phil. Mag. 44, 219 (1953).
19.The emulsion surface to which the glass plate is attached should be the same surface that was in contact with the polished glass on which the liquid emulsion had been poured in manufacture. This surface can be identified as the one having a glossy appearance. It is less likely to be covered by a film of metallic silver which tends to deposit on the pellicle surfaces during processing.
20.The wetting agent is a dioctyl ester of sodium sulfosuccinic acid and is available commercially as Aerosol OT.
21.H. Yagoda, Phys. Rev. 79, 207 (1950);
21.H. Yagoda, 80, 753 (1950)., Phys. Rev.
22.C. R. Burch, Nature 152, 748 (1943);
22.C. R. Burch, Proc. Phil. Soc. (London) 59, 41 (1947).
23.In a recent development of a large pellicle stack, the incidence of blistering was 1.2 blisters per of emulsion.
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