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Ultrahigh vacuum systems using low temperature pumps
1.L. Y. L. Shen, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 43, 1301 (1972).
2.Commercial cryopumps using liquid helium are manufactured by Excalibur Corp., Waltham, Massachusetts and by L’Air Liquide, Centre D’Études Cryogéniques, B.P. 15‐38, Sassenage, France.
3.Molecular sieve is a trade name of amorphous sodium aluminum silicate. The molecular sieves used here are packaged by Ultek Division of the Perkin‐Elmer Corp., Palo Alto, California.
4.The helium diffusion effect is well known at room temperature. The same effect occurs at low temperature in ultrahigh vacuum.
5.P. J. Carroll, D. Repici, and W. D. Gregory, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 41, 143 (1970).
6.L. Y. L. Shen, Phys. Rev. Lett. 29, 1082 (1972).
7.The stainless steel bellows (or expansion joint) is available from Anaconda Metal Hose Division, Waterbury, Connecticut.
8.Sintered copper sheets are made by Parma Technical Center, Cleveland, Ohio.
9.“Polycold” refrigeration system is made by Bohn Heat Transfer Transfer Division, Danville, Illinois.
10.Helium refrigeraion systems of all sizes are manufactured by Cryogenic Technology, Waltham, Massachusetts.
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