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Calorimetry below 1 K: The specific heat of copper
1.A. G. Worthing and D. Halliday, Heat (Wiley, New York, 1948), p. 111.
2.A. A. Varchenko and Ya. A. Kraftmakher, Phys. Status Solidi A 20, 387 (1973), and references cited therein.
3.R. Bachmann, et al., Rev. Sci. Instrum. 43, 205 (1972).
4.T. Ashworth and H. Steeple, Cryogenics 8, 225 (1968).
5.D. Durek and J. Baturic‐Rubcic, J. Phys. E. 5, 424 (1972).
6.K. H. Gobrecht and M. Saint Paul, in Proceedings of the Third International Cryogenic Engineering Conference (Iliffe Science and Technology Publ., Ltd., Surrey, England, 1970), p. 235;
6.see also R. J. Schutz, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 45, 548 (1974).
7.J. P. Harrison, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 39, 145 (1968).
8.C. L. Choy, R. G. Hunt, and G. L. Salinger, J. Chem. Phys. 52, 3629 (1970).
9.D. H. Howling, E. Mendoza, and J. E. Zimmerman, Proc. Roy Soc. A (London) 229, 86 (1955).
10.Y. Kogure and Y. Hiki, Jap. J. Appl. Phys. 12, 814 (1973).
11.A. C. Anderson, R. E. Peterson, and J. E. Robichaux, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 41, 528 (1970).
12.A. C. Anderson, J. Appl. Phys. 39, 5878 (1968).
13.A. C. Anderson, in Temperature, Its Measurement and Control in Science and Industry (Instrument Society of America, Pittsburgh, 1972), Vol. 4, p. 773.
14.A nuclear specific heat has been observed below 1 K in constantan, see J. C. Ho, H. R. O’Neal, and N. E. Phillips, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 34, 782 (1963);
14.R. Yee and G. O. Zimmerman, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 42, 233 (1971). Our data relative to the specific heat of vapor deposited constantan is compatible with the data of Ho et al. Our results are not consistent with the data of Yee and Zimmerman.
15.R. E. Peterson and A. C. Anderson, Cryogenics 10, 430 (1970).
16.R. L. Cappelletti and M. Ishikawa, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 44, 301 (1973).
17.A. C. Anderson and J. E. Robichaux, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 40, 1512 (1969).
18.The samples had a mass of 26.7 g. Two independent laboratories agreed on the following analysis: Fe, ⩽2 ppm atomic; Cr 1; Mn, ⩽0.3; Ni, ⩽0.04; Ag, 2; other metals <1 or not detected. Analyses of the actual samples gave 20 ppm atomic H in the H‐doped sample, and 30 ppm atomic O in solution in the undoped sample. The entire sample was consumed by either analysis. There was also an oxide layer on the surfaces.
19.J. Bevk, Phil. Mag. 28, 1379 (1973);
19.see also Y. Hiki, T. Maruyama, and Y. Kogure, J. Phys. Soc. Japan 34, 725 (1973).
20.D. L. Martin, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 38, 1738 (1967).
21.N. Waterhouse, Can. J. Phys. 47, 1485 (1969).
22.R. B. McLellan, J. Phys. Chem. Solids 34, 1137 (1973).
23.D. W. Osborne, H. E. Flotow, and F. Schreiner, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 38, 159 (1967).
24.Specific heat data on Cu published prior to 1971 have been reviewed by N. E. Phillips, CRC Critical Review in Solid State Sci. 2, 467 (1971);
24.see also D. L. Martin, L. L. T. Bradley, W. J. Cazemier, and R. L. Snowdon, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 44, 675 (1973);
24.D. L. Martin, Phys. Rev. B8, 5357 (1973).
25.The present data were obtained on the vapor pressure temperature scale, or essentially The Cu reference equation was based on the same temperature scale. See J. C. Holste, T. C. Cetas, and C. A. Swenson, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 43, 670 (1972);
25.see also J. C. Holste, Phys. Rev. B6, 2495, (1972).
26.G. J. Sellers, A. C. Anderson, and H. K. Birnbaum, Phys. Letters 44A, 173 (1973).
27.J. Vorhaus and A. C. Anderson, to be published.
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