Index of content:
Volume 71, Issue 2, February 2000
- NEGATIVE ION SOURCES FOR FUSION (II)
71(2000); http://dx.doi.org/10.1063/1.1150432View Description Hide Description
Intense negative ion source producing multimegawatt hydrogen/deuterium negative ion beams has been developed for the neutral beam injector (NBI) in TOKAMAK thermonuclear fusion machines. Negative ions are produced in a cesium seeded multi-cusp plasma generator via volume and surface processes, and accelerated with a multistage electrostatic accelerator. The negative ion source for JT-60U has produced 18.5 A/360 keV (6.7 MW) and 14.3 A/380 keV (5.4 MW) ion beams at average current densities of 11 mA/cm2 and 8.5 mA/cm2 A high energy negative ion source has been developed for the next generation TOKAMAK such as the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER). The source has demonstrated to accelerate negative ions up to 1 MeV, the energy required for ITER. Higher negative ion current density of more than 20 mA/cm2 was obtained in the ITER concept sources. It was confirmed that the consumption rate of cesium is small enough to operate the source for a half year in ITER-NBI without maintenance.
71(2000); http://dx.doi.org/10.1063/1.1150433View Description Hide Description
Large-scaled hydrogen negative ion source development is reviewed for a negative ion based neutral beam injector (NBI) in the large helical device(LHD)fusion machine. The target performance of the ion source is characterized by a high current of 30–40 A with a relatively low energy of 120–180 keV. A series of negative ion source development is conducted with a one-dimensionally reduced size of ion sources which still have a large beam area of or 50 cm with multi apertures. We employed a cesium-seeded volume production source with an external magnetic filter for the source development. Improvement of the arc plasma confinement is effective to produce a high-current negative ion of 16 A with a current density of 31 at a low operational gas pressure below 0.4 Pa. Suppression of the accelerated electrons is achieved both by strengthening the magnetic field at the extraction grid and by shaping the inside of the extraction grid aperture to shield the secondary electrons against the acceleration electric field. Multi beamlets delivered from a large area are finely focused with the aperture displacement technique applied to the grounded grid. Based on these results, the LHD-NBI negative ion source was designed and fabricated with a beam area of The LHD-NBI source produced 25 A of negative ions with an energy of 104 keV at a low gas pressure of 0.3 Pa. A long-pulse negative ion beam of 81 keV–1.3 MW was produced for 10 s. Four sources were installed to the LHD-NBI system, and around 4 MW of neutral beams were injected into the LHD plasmas with an energy of 100–110 keV in the first period for the NBI experiments. The LHD-NBI ion source is still being developed to improve its performance, and the key issues for the improvement are discussed.
71(2000); http://dx.doi.org/10.1063/1.1150434View Description Hide Description
To develop a high power negative ion source/accelerator for 1 MeV class neutral beam injector, hydrogen negative ion beam acceleration has been studied using a five-stage, multiaperture electrostatic accelerator. After conditioning each accelerator stage, the negative ions are accelerated to 1 MeV successfully with a drain current of 25 mA for 1 s. Cs was introduced into the ion source to produce higher current density. The highenst acceleration current density of 15 mA/cm2 was successfully accelerated up to an energy of 700 keV for 1 s, keeping the optimum perveance. The total acceleration current of 200 mA was extracted from nine central apertures 14 mm diameter each. A preliminary measurement of the heat load in the accelerator showed that the direct interception of the beam for the first grid and the third grid was negligibly small. The highest heat load was 4.5% of the input power at the second grid.