Schematic of the electrospray fluorescence system showing relative layout and connectivity of hardware: A Nd:YAG laser beam (a) passes through a beam splitter glass slide (b) which directs light to a diode trigger (c). Aerosol droplets are formed in the ESI chamber (d). Fluorophores in the droplets are then excited and detected by a photomultiplier tube (e) whose output is driven by an amplifier (f) into an oscilloscope (g). Data from the oscilloscope are transferred to a computer (h) for analysis.
Schematic of the electrospray chamber showing syringe pump (a), laser (b), photomultiplier tube (c), translational stage (d), focus lens (e), and iris (f). Top inset schematic shows magnified view of the electrospray needle (g) and counter-electrode (h).
Stopped-action photographs of aerosol droplets formed in the electrospray chamber. Pictures show the evolution of electrosprayed droplets as a function of increasing distances of 2, 4, 6, 8, and for (a)–(e), respectively.
Schematic illustrating formation and reaction of excited state with quencher.
Graph of the emission lifetimes of with increasing concentrations of TMPD.
Stern–Volmer plot of with TMPD.
Observed emission rate constantsa and calculated concentrationsb of TMPD for droplets at 6 and are listed according to the initial bulk concentration of TMPD.
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