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Design of instrumentation for probing changes in electrospray droplets via the Stern–Volmer relationship
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Image of FIG. 1.
FIG. 1.

Schematic of the electrospray fluorescence system showing relative layout and connectivity of hardware: A Nd:YAG laser beam (a) passes through a beam splitter glass slide (b) which directs light to a diode trigger (c). Aerosol droplets are formed in the ESI chamber (d). Fluorophores in the droplets are then excited and detected by a photomultiplier tube (e) whose output is driven by an amplifier (f) into an oscilloscope (g). Data from the oscilloscope are transferred to a computer (h) for analysis.

Image of FIG. 2.
FIG. 2.

Schematic of the electrospray chamber showing syringe pump (a), laser (b), photomultiplier tube (c), translational stage (d), focus lens (e), and iris (f). Top inset schematic shows magnified view of the electrospray needle (g) and counter-electrode (h).

Image of FIG. 3.
FIG. 3.

Stopped-action photographs of aerosol droplets formed in the electrospray chamber. Pictures show the evolution of electrosprayed droplets as a function of increasing distances of 2, 4, 6, 8, and for (a)–(e), respectively.

Image of FIG. 4.
FIG. 4.

Schematic illustrating formation and reaction of excited state with quencher.

Image of FIG. 5.
FIG. 5.

Graph of the emission lifetimes of with increasing concentrations of TMPD.

Image of FIG. 6.
FIG. 6.

Stern–Volmer plot of with TMPD.


Generic image for table
Table I.

Observed emission rate constantsa and calculated concentrationsb of TMPD for droplets at 6 and are listed according to the initial bulk concentration of TMPD.


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752b84549af89a08dbdd7fdb8b9568b5 journal.articlezxybnytfddd
Scitation: Design of instrumentation for probing changes in electrospray droplets via the Stern–Volmer relationship