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15.The pump was an XDS5 dry scroll pump manufactured by BOC Edwards,
16.Two positions with large gradients in the Hall voltage in different directions were examined. At the first, was was , and was . At the second, was was 34, and . These gradients may have been due to an electrical interaction between the sample and sensor, rather than magnetic vortices. They were, however, approximately constant over a 600 nm diameter and reproducible between scans before and after the vibration measurement.
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23.See EPAPS Document No. E-RSINAK-76-212510 for the complete set of grain boundary images assembled into a movie. This document can be reached through a direct link in the online articles's HTML reference section or via the EPAPS homepage ([Supplementary Material]
24.The ADC card actually acquires the two wave forms by scanning its ADC between the two inputs, thus the samples are interleaved in time rather than simultaneous. The resultant time shift is corrected before averaging the Hall or sample voltage wave forms.
25.Instead of finding zero crossings, one could fit a sinusoid to to determine its frequency and phase, which could be used to break into cycles. We found, however, that showed slight, but statistically significant, variations in frequency within each wave form causing the sinusoid to misrepresent some cycles.
26.The ADC card is rated to settle from full range to 1 least-significant bit within . In the interval used here, it would settle to 4 mV, which translates to a magnetic field of 0.1 G, from the maximum value of 1 V.
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28.Such a magnet was designed and built into a Desert Cryogenics probe station by Dr. Douwe Monsma in Professor Charles Marcus’s laboratory at Harvard University.
29.See, for example, vacuum-compatible stepper motors from tectra GmbH Physikalische Instrumente,, or servo motors from Aerotech, Inc.,
30.For example, Physik Instrumente (PI) GmbH & Co. KG,, makes closed-loop, stick-slip piezo actuators.
31.See EXFO Burleigh Products Group Inc.’s motors,, or Bookham Inc. New Focus division’s ,

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We have constructed a scanning Hall-probe microscope that combines a scan range with 200 nm positioning resolution by coupling stepper motors to high-resolution drivers and reducing gears. The instrument is uniquely suited for efficient magnetic imaging of mesoscopic devices, media, and materials, operating from 4 K to room temperature with fast turn-around time. Its potential for studying dissipation in coated conductors—high- superconducting tapes—is demonstrated via model systems. We image an entire sample of , then zoom in to individual fluxons. Flux penetration into a single artificial grain boundary is imaged with field resolution and time resolution by averaging over cycles of ac driving current. Using the resulting magnetic movie, we map out ac power losses.


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