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Intense nanosecond duration source of 10–250 keV x rays suitable for imaging projectile-induced cavitation in human cadaver tissue
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Image of FIG. 1.
FIG. 1.

MXU IIIa disassembled showing the Marx column, x-ray tube, and peaking gap.

Image of FIG. 2.
FIG. 2.

Low-voltage end of the Marx column showing the field distortion switch, spark-gap switches, and the midplane bias resistors (the two dark rectangles).

Image of FIG. 3.
FIG. 3.

Cross section of the x-ray tube and the turbo pump.

Image of FIG. 4.
FIG. 4.

Photograph of the assembled x-ray source.

Image of FIG. 5.
FIG. 5.

Equivalent circuit of the Marx generator and the current feed coupling.

Image of FIG. 6.
FIG. 6.

Model of the x-ray diode showing the plasma cathode expanding toward the conical anode with velocity with its width represented by the independent parameter .

Image of FIG. 7.
FIG. 7.

Comparison of (a) the calculated diode current and (c) the calculated voltage with (b) the measured current and (d) the measured voltage.

Image of FIG. 8.
FIG. 8.

Extrapolated width of the plasma cathode showing pinch at 35 ns.

Image of FIG. 9.
FIG. 9.

Pinhole photograph of the x-ray emission from the anode which shows a ring of intense x-ray emission near the base of the anode. The photograph of the anode shows a surface depression ring resulting from sputtering.

Image of FIG. 10.
FIG. 10.

Four-channel time resolved x-ray detector configured for wide band energy measurement using thin metal foil filters.

Image of FIG. 11.
FIG. 11.

Optical filtration of the slow and fast components of the scintillator emission.

Image of FIG. 12.
FIG. 12.

X-ray energy distribution calculated from the simulated cathode current and AK voltage.

Image of FIG. 13.
FIG. 13.

Apparatus used to record bullet passage through human cadaver legs.

Image of FIG. 14.
FIG. 14.

Flash radiographs of 7.62 mm caliber bullets passing through the soft tissue behind the femurs and the subsequent cavity growth.

Image of FIG. 15.
FIG. 15.

Cavity images recorded at times after the bullets passed the femurs of (a) 1500 μs, (b) 1650 μs, and (c) 5169 μs.

Image of FIG. 16.
FIG. 16.

(a) Schematic of the dual-energy film cassette, and the two images recorded by (b) the front film and (c) the back film.


Generic image for table
Table I.

Comparison of the calculated and measured energy fractions.


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752b84549af89a08dbdd7fdb8b9568b5 journal.articlezxybnytfddd
Scitation: Intense nanosecond duration source of 10–250 keV x rays suitable for imaging projectile-induced cavitation in human cadaver tissue