^{1,a)}, Mikhail Loktev

^{2}and Gleb Vdovin

^{2}

### Abstract

A wireless driving and controlling setup constructed by a coilsystem and a simple power metal-oxide-semiconductor field effect transistor switch circuit for modal liquid crystal lens has been designed, fabricated and characterized. Electrical and structural modeling and analysis have been applied to the design of the wireless power transforming and controllingsystem. Some key electrical characteristics of coils with different diameter and winding, such as resistance, impedance, capacitance,inductance, and factor, which determine the driving and controlling behaviors of the coilsystem constructed, are given. The liquid crystal lens can be operated under relatively low driving voltage ranging from about . Under dynamic operation, the prototype system has shown a stable driving and controlling performance to liquid crystal lens under the condition of switching mode of a few KHz. The possibility of integrating very small coils connected in series onto a small-size silicon chip as an integrated receiver in biomedicine application has been shown experimentally.

I. INTRODUCTION

II. DESIGN AND MODEL

III. MEASUREMENT AND ANALYSIS

IV. POSSIBILITY FOR INTEGRATION APPLICATION

### Key Topics

- Coils
- 125.0
- Inductance
- 15.0
- Liquid crystals
- 13.0
- Capacitance
- 10.0
- Electric measurements
- 8.0

## Figures

The diagram of the wireless controlling and driving system constructed by coils and a simple switch circuit for modal liquid crystal lens.

The diagram of the wireless controlling and driving system constructed by coils and a simple switch circuit for modal liquid crystal lens.

Relation between the rms voltage and winding of the second coil in the range of 10–100 turn at intervals of 10 turns. The diameter of the first coil with 40 turns varies from .

Relation between the rms voltage and winding of the second coil in the range of 10–100 turn at intervals of 10 turns. The diameter of the first coil with 40 turns varies from .

Dependence of the rms voltage on the distance between the large coil with the diameter of and 40 winding and the small coil with the diameter of and different winding ranging from 10 to 100 turns at intervals of 10 turns.

Dependence of the rms voltage on the distance between the large coil with the diameter of and 40 winding and the small coil with the diameter of and different winding ranging from 10 to 100 turns at intervals of 10 turns.

Dependence of the rms voltage on the distance between the large coils with 40 winding and different diameters ranging from and the small coil with the diameter of and 100 winding.

Dependence of the rms voltage on the distance between the large coils with 40 winding and different diameters ranging from and the small coil with the diameter of and 100 winding.

Dependence of the rms voltage on the distance between two coils in the direction of cross section of the large coils with 40 winding and different diameters ranging from . (A) turns, (B) turns.

Dependence of the rms voltage on the distance between two coils in the direction of cross section of the large coils with 40 winding and different diameters ranging from . (A) turns, (B) turns.

The wave forms obtained from the second coils with 50 and 100 turn for remotely driving optical LC device, respectively. Corresponding to the duty cycle of 20, corresponding to the duty cycle of 30, corresponding to the duty cycle of 40, corresponding to the duty cycle of 50, corresponding to the duty cycle of 60, corresponding to the duty cycle of 70, corresponding to the duty cycle of 80. The and rms voltage.

The wave forms obtained from the second coils with 50 and 100 turn for remotely driving optical LC device, respectively. Corresponding to the duty cycle of 20, corresponding to the duty cycle of 30, corresponding to the duty cycle of 40, corresponding to the duty cycle of 50, corresponding to the duty cycle of 60, corresponding to the duty cycle of 70, corresponding to the duty cycle of 80. The and rms voltage.

The optical characteristics of LC lens remotely driven by coil system. The diameter and winding of the first coil are and 40 turns, respectively. The diameter and winding of the second coil are and 90 turns, respectively. The effective distance between two coils is . The switch frequency of the power MOSFET (BUZ11) is about . (A) Dependence of the inductance on frequency, (B) dependence of the capacitance on frequency, (C) dependence of the impedance on frequency, (D) dependence of the resistance on frequency.

The optical characteristics of LC lens remotely driven by coil system. The diameter and winding of the first coil are and 40 turns, respectively. The diameter and winding of the second coil are and 90 turns, respectively. The effective distance between two coils is . The switch frequency of the power MOSFET (BUZ11) is about . (A) Dependence of the inductance on frequency, (B) dependence of the capacitance on frequency, (C) dependence of the impedance on frequency, (D) dependence of the resistance on frequency.

Electrical characteristics of the first 40 turn coils with diameters of 16, 22, 32, 44, and , respectively. The maximum current going through the coil is . The oscillating frequency in the coil is not more than . (A) Dependence of the inductance on frequency, (B) dependence of the factor on frequency, (C) dependence of the resistance on frequency, (D) dependence of the efficient on frequency.

Electrical characteristics of the first 40 turn coils with diameters of 16, 22, 32, 44, and , respectively. The maximum current going through the coil is . The oscillating frequency in the coil is not more than . (A) Dependence of the inductance on frequency, (B) dependence of the factor on frequency, (C) dependence of the resistance on frequency, (D) dependence of the efficient on frequency.

The relative factors of the first five-turn coil with diameter of . The current going through the coil is in the range of . The oscillating frequency in the coil is not more than .

The relative factors of the first five-turn coil with diameter of . The current going through the coil is in the range of . The oscillating frequency in the coil is not more than .

The dependence of the inductance of the first 10 turn coil with diameter of on frequency. The current going through the coil is in the range of . The oscillating frequency in the coil is not more than .

The dependence of the inductance of the first 10 turn coil with diameter of on frequency. The current going through the coil is in the range of . The oscillating frequency in the coil is not more than .

The dependence of the inductance of the first 15 turn coil with diameter of on frequency. The current going through the coil is in the range of . The oscillating frequency in the coil is not more than .

The dependence of the inductance of the first 15 turn coil with diameter of on frequency. The current going through the coil is in the range of . The oscillating frequency in the coil is not more than .

The dependence of the inductance of the first 20 turn coil with diameter of on frequency. The current going through the coil is the range of . The oscillating frequency in the coil is not more than .

The dependence of the inductance of the first 20 turn coil with diameter of on frequency. The current going through the coil is the range of . The oscillating frequency in the coil is not more than .

The dependence of the inductance of the first 30 turn coil with diameter of on frequency. The current going through the coil is in the range of . The oscillating frequency in the coil is not more than .

The dependence of the inductance of the first 30 turn coil with diameter of on frequency. The current going through the coil is in the range of . The oscillating frequency in the coil is not more than .

The dependence of the inductance of the first 40 turn coil with diameter of on frequency. The current going through the coil is in the range of . The oscillating frequency in the coil is not more than . (A) Dependence of the inductance on frequency, (B) dependence of the capacitance on frequency, (C) dependence of the impedance on frequency, (D) dependence of the resistance on frequency.

The dependence of the inductance of the first 40 turn coil with diameter of on frequency. The current going through the coil is in the range of . The oscillating frequency in the coil is not more than . (A) Dependence of the inductance on frequency, (B) dependence of the capacitance on frequency, (C) dependence of the impedance on frequency, (D) dependence of the resistance on frequency.

Electrical characteristics of the second coil with the diameter of and different winding ranging from 10 to 100 turn at intervals of 10 turns. The oscillating frequency in the coil is not more than . First coil: (A) Structure of the coil system; (B) equivalent circuit of the second coil group; (C) oscillating circuit for optical LC device.

Electrical characteristics of the second coil with the diameter of and different winding ranging from 10 to 100 turn at intervals of 10 turns. The oscillating frequency in the coil is not more than . First coil: (A) Structure of the coil system; (B) equivalent circuit of the second coil group; (C) oscillating circuit for optical LC device.

The diagram of the coil system for integrating coil structure in remotely controlling optical LC lenses. Several small coils are connected in series to construct the power receiving setup which will be integrated onto a small-size silicon chip acting as an integrating receiver. The data labeled by A, ∎ and ◻ were obtained by connecting the second coils with different winding in series, and the number of small coil connected increases from the beginning of 10 winding to 100 winding at intervals of 10 windings sequentially. The data labeled by B, ● and 엯 were obtained by singly connecting the second coil with the oscilloscope of TDS210 for LC device.

The diagram of the coil system for integrating coil structure in remotely controlling optical LC lenses. Several small coils are connected in series to construct the power receiving setup which will be integrated onto a small-size silicon chip acting as an integrating receiver. The data labeled by A, ∎ and ◻ were obtained by connecting the second coils with different winding in series, and the number of small coil connected increases from the beginning of 10 winding to 100 winding at intervals of 10 windings sequentially. The data labeled by B, ● and 엯 were obtained by singly connecting the second coil with the oscilloscope of TDS210 for LC device.

The voltage of the small coil and coil group labeled by and rms for integrating coil application in remotely controlling optical LC lenses. (A) voltage in small coil and coil group, (B) rms voltage in small coil and coil group.

The voltage of the small coil and coil group labeled by and rms for integrating coil application in remotely controlling optical LC lenses. (A) voltage in small coil and coil group, (B) rms voltage in small coil and coil group.

Two typical situations of the voltage of the second coil labeled by and rms for integrated coil structure in silicon substrate.

Two typical situations of the voltage of the second coil labeled by and rms for integrated coil structure in silicon substrate.

The wave forms in small coil group constructed by connecting several small coils in series.

The wave forms in small coil group constructed by connecting several small coils in series.

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